Saturday, August 31, 2019
Climate change mitigation is the action to reduce the intensity of radiative forcing in order to reduce the effects of global warming (IPCC, 2006). Climate change mitigation can be done through several means such as developing alternative energy which includes renewable and nuclear energy, decreasing the carbon intensity of fossil fuel through carbon capture and sequestering, reforestation and also simply by conserving energy.Based on the cost-benefit analysis of each methods, I believe that the effectiveness and practically of each methods can be ranked, in decreasing order, as such Ã¢â¬â (1) Reducing energy use by conservation (2) Developing renewable energy (3) Carbon capture and sequestering (4) Building more nuclear power plant and lastly (5) Reforestation. The most cost effective and practical way to mitigate climate change is through conservation of energy. Energy conservation encompasses using less energy, for example through behavioural change and using energy efficient i nnovations and designs.Energy conservation focuses on reducing our dependence on fossil fuels thus lowering the amount of carbon emissions generated by human activities. Unlike the other mitigation methods, energy conservation usually does not require huge investment cost and in the long run can also bring about cost savings to both the individuals and organisations. For instance, by switching from using CFLs to LED lights, one can experience a 100% annual cost savings as the annual operating cost of CFLs is twice that of the annual operating cost of LED lights (Design Recycle Inc, 2011).Energy conservation is also the most practical way for us to fight against climate change because it enables us to reduce our resource inputs to the economy, thus, it ensures that the non-renewable resources available will be able to support human activities for a longer period of time. Despite being the most cost-effective and practical way for climate change mitigation, it is definitely not an eas y task to effect energy conservation programs. Strict government regulations will have to be enforced to ensure that every organisation comply with Ã¢â¬Ëgreen standardsÃ¢â¬â¢.Educational programs and price signals (high electricity cost) will have to be in place to bring about a behavioural change amongst every individual for successful energy conservation. Developing renewable energy ranks next after energy conservation in terms of its effectiveness and practicality. In 2006, about 19% of the global electricity is generated from renewable sources such as hydropower, wind and solar-generated energy (REN21, 2006). This indicates the effectiveness in developing renewable energy as it is able to contribute a reasonable amount of electricity to supplement human activities.Furthermore, the development of renewable energy as an alternative form of energy can help to reduce our dependence on fossil fuel, hence, reducing carbon emissions in the long run. However, developing renewable en ergy pales in terms practically as it often requires huge investment cost yet the amount of energy that can be generated is often variable and less efficient as compared to combusting fossil fuels. For instance, installation of a highly efficient solar cell can cost more than $1000, and some households may need more than one solar cell.This makes the initial installation of solar panels very costly and solar panels are only able to generate electricity during daylight hours. This means for around half of each day, solar panels are not producing energy for your home (Clean Energy Ideas, 2007). Hence, it may not be very practical to focus on developing renewable energy so as to mitigate climate change. However, it is definitely important to continue developing and finding new ways to improve on the current renewable energy technology so that renewable energy can be more affordable and reliable in the near future.Although carbon capture and sequestering (CCS) do not help to reduce our dependence on fossil fuel, it is however still effective in reducing climate change. It is estimated that CCS could contribute between 10% and 55% of the cumulative worldwide carbon-mitigation effort over the next 90 years (Robinson, 2010). Though it requires up to 40% more energy to run a CCS coal power plant than a regular coal plant, CCS could potentially capture about 90% of all the carbon emitted by the plant.As of late 2011, the total Carbon Dioxide storage capacity of all 14 projects in operation or under construction is broadly equivalent to preventing the emissions from more than six million cars from entering the atmosphere each year (Global CCS Institute, 2011). This indicates the effectiveness of CCS in reducing the impact of human activities on the environment as large amounts of our outputs can be captured and stored safely to prevent emission back to the atmosphere.However, unlike the first two options of energy conservation and developing renewable energy, CCS may no t be effective in the long run as it does not reduce our dependence on burning fossil fuel. Due to the huge investment costs involved in building CCS operations, less developed countries may not be able to afford such technologies. Therefore, it will be a more practical option for developed countries to adopt so as to reduce their carbon emissions contributed by industrial activities.Despite the effectiveness of nuclear power plants in generating energy for human activities, it is not a very practical option to build more nuclear power plants due to safety concerns. The fact that nuclear power plants currently supply around 15% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s electricity illustrates the effectiveness of the project. In countries like France where 75% of their electricity is derived from nuclear power plants (World Nuclear Association, 2013), constant development and improvement of nuclear power plants is inevitable.However, developing more nuclear power plants may not a practical way to help mitigate climate change despite its ability to help reduce our dependence on burning fossil fuels. First, developing nuclear power plants requires high investment which includes the construction cost, operation cost, and also the cost of plant decommissioning and nuclear waste storage cost. Second, nuclear power plants are susceptible to natural disasters, military attacks and operational error.For example, the tsunami in Fukushima Japan has led to the meltdown of the reactors which caused chemical explosions to occur, releasing radioactive materials into the environment (CBS News, 2011). Nuclear power plants have also become a potential target for military attacks as illustrated by the frequent bombings of nuclear power plants in the Middle East region (Sovacool, 2011). Such nuclear accidents can have a long term effect on the organisms living in vicinity of the nuclear power plants. As such, taking into account the probability of occurrence of such accidents, it is not practical f or countries to develop more nuclear power plants.Reforestation ranks last in terms of effectiveness and practically. Although reforestation facilitates biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide and rebuilds habitat for organisms at the same time, it is however, impractical for reforestation to be carried out in large scale. First, as many countries move towards urbanization, it is unlikely that sufficient space will be available for reforestation to be conducted at a scale that can bring about a tangible reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Second, reforestation requires long term investment as it takes time for the plants and trees to grow.At the rate at which human activities generates carbon emissions, reforestation will be ineffective in capturing carbon dioxide at a comparable rate that can decrease the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Instead of reforestation, avoiding deforestation will be a more feasible way and effective way to mitigate climate change. In conc lusion, to effectively mitigate climate change, proposals need to look at either reducing our carbon emissions by decreasing our dependence on burning fossil fuel or clearing up the carbon emissions which we have emitted to the atmosphere.In the long run, proposals that can reduce our dependence on burning fossil fuel will be a more effective method as it reduces the amount of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, hence, energy conservation and developing renewable energy is ranked as the top two means to mitigate climate changes. Although carbon capture does not reduce our dependence on fossil fuel, it nevertheless is an effective way in the short run, for us to store carbon emissions before we can develop cheaper ways to harness renewable energy and before we can successful implement energy conservation programs.Due to the safety concerns related to developing nuclear power plants, such developments need to be exercise with caution. Countries should also look at imposing laws to avo id deforestation rather than carrying out reforestation projects that may not be as effective and practical in mitigating climate changes. Works Cited CBS News. (2011, May 14). Worker dies at damaged Fukushima nuclear plant. Retrieved March 20, 2013, from CBS News: http://www. cbsnews. com/stories/2011/05/14/501364/main20062987. shtml Clean Energy Ideas. (2007). Pros and Cons of Solar Energy. Retrieved March 19, 2013, from Clean Energy Ideas: http://www. lean-energy-ideas. com/articles/pros_and_cons_of_solar_energy. html Design Recycle Inc. (2011). Comparison Chart. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from Design Recycle Inc: http://www. designrecycleinc. com/led%20comp%20chart. html Global CCS Institute. (2011). The Global Status of CCS: 2011. Canberra, Australia: Global CCS Institute. IPCC. (2006). Glossary. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: http://www. ipcc. ch/pdf/glossary/ar4-wg3. pdf REN21. (2006). Changing Climates, The role of renewable energy i n carbon-constrained world. REN21. Robinson, S. (2010, January 22). Cutting Carbon: Should We Capture and Store
Friday, August 30, 2019
Paulo FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Ã¢â¬ËThe Banking Concept of EducationÃ¢â¬â¢ and Walker PercyÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Ã¢â¬ËThe Loss of the CreatureÃ¢â¬â¢ ultimately share the same message that students without a struggle are not able to use their education to confront real-life situations. I believe that meaningful learning is a process that takes place daily. Everyone learns in a different way and at different speed. I feel that it is a gradual process in which one learns imperceptibly depending on what they have been able to grasp in or from the kind of mistakes made. I would define meaningful learning as a process in which one is exposed to new interesting information, knowledge or experience that one could use in their upcoming life if needed, and help them from committing any additional blunders related to it. One aspect that can affect meaningful learning are the preconceived notions that are built from numerous different sources; it could be media, books, other people, outings or fr om experiences that are driven by their own pure personal desire. For me, it is meaningful learning if one has used their individual perspective and critical thinking to come to a conclusion and educated them from the information acquired. I feel that having predetermined notions is not a terrible thing but it is important that one should be open to other aspects. To shed some light on my concept of meaningful learning, I would like to use the example of my visit to Red Fort, India. I went with some preconceived notions since I had heard a lot about it from my close friend. Percy states in his essay that, Ã¢â¬Å"the sovereign discovery of the thing before him is rather measuring up of the thing to the criterion of the preformed symbolic complexÃ¢â¬ (460). Percy, in the above statement argues that having a preconceived image through media, books or other sources can lead to false appreciation. While on the other hand, FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s states that education becomes an act of depositing, in which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the depositor. Instead of communicating, the teacher issues communiques and makes deposits, which the students patiently receive, memorize and repeat (318). In the aboveÃ statement, Freire claims that the banking concept of education thereby changes humans into objects. Humans have no independence and therefore no ability to rationalize and conceptualize knowledge at a personal level. Both Percy and Friere claims that any notions built on the basis of additional sources cannot lead to a meaningful experience. As per Percy, I lost sovereignty on my trip to red fort by having preconceived notions and not thinking critically about it, while as per Friere, I was the depository and my friend was the depositor, which affected my learning of a meaningful experience. From my experience, I disagree with both of them. On my trip, I found that the fort had its wall engraved with timelines and details of how and when various events took place in that fort in the historical era. The fort had old weapons preserved, which the emperor and their soldiers were using in the historical era. I captured a lot of images and videos but was also able to experi ence the site to the fullest. I spent an entire day at the fort, which was truly an amazing experience and learnt a lot more about it than what I had heard from my friend. My experience at the Red Fort made me believe that having some preconceived notions can be encouraging and productive in opposition to what Percy thinks about people having symbolic complexity and not able to experience the sight for what it truly is. According to FriereÃ¢â¬â¢s banking concept, my friend was the depositor and I was depositories, had I not been a depositories in this case, I do not think I would have even visited this place and would have missed out on a meaningful learning experience. From my experience, I do not agree with Percy regarding his view on how to acquire real experience. In such a tech savvy world, it is most of the time not practically possible to be unaware about things. I feel that not understanding its significance before jumping to any conclusion can lead one to disappointment and loss of sovereignty. Later another incident occurred in my life when I decided to move to the United States of America, everything was different to me. I had enrolled myself as an international student in college. I was not a fluent English speaker as compared to all the students studying here. I enrolled myself into an English course along with other four different courses. English was not easy to read or grasp the first time through but gradually after few lectures in which there was continuous communication and questions asked during the class I could comprehend. Communication between students andÃ their teachers is the key to learning. I remember before giving assignments, my teacher would supply us with background information as to how to begin, how to use key words, make clear sentences and etc. She was a resource for me. She not only gave information on what we were reading but called upon us to formulate an idea and share it with the class. When the teacher allowed my classmates and me to converse, we could come up with new ideas and shared with her to get her opinion. She would either say that we made an excellent point and that she never thought of it before or might even share a better knowledge with us from her experience about it. This reminds me of Paulo FriereÃ¢â¬â¢s quote that, Through dialogue, the teacher-of-the-student and the students of the teacher cease to exist and a new term emerges: teacher student with student-teacher. The teacher is no longer the one who teaches you but one who teaches himself in dialogue with the students. They become jointly responsible for a process in which all grow (324). Friere also states that, both should simultaneously be teachers and students. The teacher no longer knows everything and students know nothing (319). The role of students and the teachers are not necessarily what need to be altered. From my experience, I agree with Freire that the role of the teacher and the s tudent will always remain; however, it is the distance between role and authority of the two, which should change. They are now partners. This example also relates to the story of the Falkland Islander by Walker Percy, who, by himself learnt through his own actions. He took a jack knife and started digging to see for himself and learnt with a different perspective then that of a biology student who would diagnose as per given instructions. In my case, I was given that freedom to critically think and come up with ideas by different perspectives. I was exercising the sovereign right and was master of my own creation. I could have taken help from my teacher but I believed in myself that I could do it and even when in trouble, my teacher was there for me as a true guidance and subordinate to show me the path. Thus I strongly agree with Walker Percy that, Ã¢â¬Å"The Falkland Islander explores his dogfish and he is the person exercising the sovereign right of a person in his lordship and mastery of creationÃ¢â¬ (467). I certainly agree with Paulo FriereÃ¢â¬â¢s problem posing education method and Walker PercyÃ¢â¬â¢s studying method as both has led to a meaningful learning experience in my life. I was not only able to think and decide for myselfÃ but it also helped me gain a lot of confidence. It made me realize that I might have missed out on certain meaningful learning experience if I had not been given a chance to think by myself. The bottom line is that education should provide tools and practice in critical thinking for students, not absolute answers. I completely agree with FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s argument in this chapter. In fact, I feel that it is one of the most meaningful pieces of educational literature that I have ever encountered. WORK CITED Frieire, Paulo. Ã¢â¬Å"The Ã¢â¬ËBankingÃ¢â¬â¢ Concept of Education.Ã¢â¬ Ways of Reading. Boston: Bedford, 2011. Percy, Walker. Ã¢â¬Å"The Loss of Creature.Ã¢â¬ Ways of Reading. Boston: Bedford, 2011.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Globalization and Technology - Essay Example Information technologies such as the internet are a factor that positively influenced globalization around the world. The internet has influenced globalization in several ways. People can use the internet to communicate across the world with other people. Cultural barriers were broken due to the internet because people can use the internet to learn about other cultures. A database that can be access with the facility of the internet that is very useful to learn about cultural matters is the CultureGrams database. An example of a website that has used the internet to reach the global population is Facebook. The internet led to the development of virtual companies. One of the most successful virtual companies with global sales of $8.7 billion in 2009 is the online auction site EBay (Ebay, 2011). EBay is one of many companies that is benefiting from e-commerce transactions. In 2010 the size of the US e-commerce marketplace was $153 billion (Plunkett Research, 2011). The corporate world can utilize the internet for many purposes. One of the primary benefits of having a corporate website is that it can help a company generate additional revenues. The revenues that a company can generate using e-commerce are not limited to their domestic region. The internet allows companies to reach global customers. Normal physical stores do not have that capability.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Nursing Research - Assignment Example The later is more common than the former, and it involves disconnecting the ventilator from the patient and then suctioning his or her airway (Anton, & Buiting, 2011). However, disconnecting a ventilator is dangerous because it can cause some disturbances including the loss of lung volume, oxygen desaruration, and a large drog in in the pressure of the airways (Anton, & Buiting, 2011). Therefore, open suctioning is not appropriate for patients affected by an acute respiration distress syndrome. Closed suctioning systems have partly replaced the open suctioning systems. This is because closed suctioning systems allow uninterrupted ventilation, which helps avoid gas-exchange impairment during suctioning and helps decrease the loss of uninterrupted ventilation (Anton, & Buiting, 2011). In closed suctioning systems, the loss of lung volume and the generating of negative airway pressure occur whenever the flow from a ventilator is somewhat lower than the expected suction flow. Studies hav e shown that using closed suctioning in volume-controlled ventilation condition may lead to unpredictably high positive end-expiratory pressure in cases where the suction catheter is inserted (Lasocki et al 2006). While in open endotracheal suctio
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Sustainable Talent Management - Term Paper Example Similarly, an equal and good-willed organizational culture is needful for the realization of organizational success, given that a transparent and committed executive arm of an organization makes decisions that will affect the HRMÃ¢â¬â¢s and the entire organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness. 1. Determining the Performance Management Process to Be Employed to Measure Employee Talent On a personal standpoint, the best performance management processes for measuring employee talent are those that are envisioned in the management by objectives [MBO] model. Management by objectives is a model used to carry out performance appraisal, following its introduction by Peter Drucker in the 1950s. This involves the manager and the employee agreeing upon specific and achievable objectives that are to be met within a given deadline. However, to achieve utmost effectiveness and a more comprehensive view, it is important to merge the MBO model with the organizational performance vs. individual performan ce management model. In this model, the extension of incentives to the staff, the development and management of employees' talents is placed in the hands of the human resource [HR] performance management system, since this engagement is a major influence on strategic change and operational performance (Gardner, 2006). Organizational performance vs. ... For instance, measuring the best employee talent in the MBO must factor performance target, just as organizational performance vs. individual performance management model involves the HR department setting performance target [goals], at the individual and organizational level. Shukla (2009) contends that it is from the two models or a merger of the two models that there can be specific performance appraisal, to determine the attainment of organizational performance target. Without the factoring of performance target, an organization can never ascertain the extent of the performance gap that it has attained, or the extent to which it has met the performance target. Because of this, it becomes equally impossible to accurately apply correctional measures [such as training programs and workshop drives] to help seal performance gap and strengthen talent. Likewise the extension of incentives [such as promotions, increased remunerations, acknowledgement and/ or scholarship] becomes subject to whims, since determining those who attain performance target becomes obscured. 2. Analyzing the Key Concepts Related To the Talent Pools and the Talent Review Process There are key concepts that are related to talent pools and the review talent review process. One of these concepts is talents. Closely related to the desired talents is the observation of meritocracy and an open, transparent and competitive recruitment drive. Talent is key to the talent pool and talent review process since it encompasses the desired traits, gifts, qualifications and behavioral predispositions that are directly and indirectly applicable to the attainment of organizational goals. Likewise, in the absence of an accountable and competitive recruitment process, it becomes
Monday, August 26, 2019
The Developing Conflict Management Skills in the Hospital - Essay Example Communication is very important in making the oncology ward staff effective. I will always listen before I speak, speak slowly and clearly, use diagrams where possible to express my points and encourage questions (Ellis, 2009, p. 33). Burnard (1997, p. 83) asserts that listening shows that one cares. Furthermore, I will acknowledge differences of opinions, be open-minded, not be judgmental, accept feedback, be assertive, and share my feelings and thoughts with members of staff. Good communication ensures that interpersonal communication between leaders and followers is clear and understandable. Good communication ensures that all the team members are informed about how their actions, behaviour and work affect the hospital, patients and the society (Ellis, 2005, p. 23). Good communication skills will ensure that the vision and mission of the oncology ward are well communicated to the staff. Proficiency is necessary for informing and seeking information. I will try as much as possible to communicate with all members regularly. When a problem arises, I will meet with affected parties to discuss and arrive at an acceptable solution within twenty-four hours. I will establish direct contacts with all team members once every week to recognize their efforts and notice their concerns. In addition, I will always be explicit and clear on the expectations I have for all my team members. Effective persuasion is an important communication skill that I will alarm. It enables a leader to influence followers and other key persons in the hospital to follow a particular path or implement a certain idea.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Architecture and the Culture of Modernism - Essay Example The essay "Architecture and the Culture of Modernism" discovers architecture and culture of modernism. In a world of development, it is considerably argumentative how architecture could actually follow through the different changes. In this paper, a focus on how modern architecture actually faces the demands by which the human society actually need the changes in structures established today shall be well discussed. Judging from the fact that there are still primitive tribes today who live in caves and rude shelters, some have concluded that it has taken man many thousands of years to develop an architectural sense. According to this theory, modern manÃ¢â¬â¢s forebears had to grope their way through many ages of mindless development before intelligence began to dawn. Already vast projects were being undertaken. This was in the days of the rebel Nimrod, a man who defied the Creator, put himself prominently before men as a leader and engaged in building city after city, commencing wi th Babel. Men had mastered the art of building with kiln-dried bricks and mortar. Prominent in Babel and well-calculated to catch the eye and dominate the landscape was the lofty temple tower, probably of the ziggurat type of structure, each story stepped back from the one below. The long-lasting influence of those ancient architects in the pyramids of Egypt, the ruins of the Maya empires of Central America, the remains of colossal shrines in Cambodia and India, and the stepped-back structures of New York and other large cities.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Trends in the Workplace - Coursework Example Issues of ageing employees, diversity and skills deficiencies feature new trends in work place. To respond to the demands of the work environment, the human resource managers need to exercise flexibility if their organizations have to remain profitable both in the short and long-term. The organization selection and recruitment process is an activity that the human resource managers take seriously to obtain the best work force within their institution. The selection process is an activity that involves selection of only qualified employees who suit the minimum requirements of the position and fill the existing employee gaps effectively (Schuler & MacMillan, 2012). For an organization to achieve its goals, it requires skilled personnel with adequate skills and experiences to handle the needs of the organization. In any organization, the selection process takes at different stages. The applicants undergo scrutiny for academic qualifications, skills, experiences and leadership qualities. The human resource managers set clear the qualifications of the position in their advertisement to ensure that only the qualified candidates apply. Those with less than minimum requirements are dismissed at the preliminary stage even before the first interviews. This saves on time an d cost that is used for hosting the interviews, regarding the high number of applicants who turn up to their advertisements. In addition, human resource managers provide a formal orientation to the successful candidates. The orientation process is a good way to facilitate employees work behavior and this helps them to adapt more quickly and to work become part of the work team more quickly. The ability of human resource managers helps to recruit the right workforce and to form a team that can implement the organizational goals. Employee performance evaluation is a key element of human resource
American Prison Law - Essay Example Citizens, who had been wrongly accused or unjustly sentenced, could challenge such actions. It was the bounden duty of the federal government to implement a system of checks-and-balances in the system so that the correction department did not infringe the fundamental liberty of citizens. This endeavor was assisted significantly by librarians who acted in an unbiased manner within the purview of the standards established by the American Association of Law Libraries. This was to ensure that the policies of institutions and departments, and authorizations from the United States Supreme Court and local jurisdictions were observed2. In the 1977 case of Bounds v. Smiths, the right of an offender to access the judiciary was established by the US Supreme Court. Moreover, the court held that prison inmates should be provided with access to state and federal court systems. It also directed the correctional facilities to allow offenders to access law libraries and to provide legal assistance to their illiterate inmates, so that they could avail themselves of professional assistance while preparing their pleadings. The objective of this decision was to enable prisoners to access the court systems. However this ruling created a lot of consternation amongst the correctional personnel, librarians and library science professionals as it required them to implement new strategies in order to provide prison inmates with access to the appropriate legal documents3. The applicants in Casey v Lewis were prison officials of the Arizona DOC. The DOC had argued that the US District Court of Arizona had been mistaken in deciding that the department had breached Bounds. It also claimed that the court's order deprived the lawful remedies of the department. The respondents in the case were twenty - two inmates imprisoned in various correctional facilities of the DOC4. The respondents collectively filed a class - suit on behalf of all offenders who had been imprisoned and also on behalf of future offenders. In their application they have accused the DOC of depriving them of the right to access the courts and counsel. These provisions had been assured by the First, Sixth and Fourteenth Constitutional amendments. The district court held that the prisoners had a constitutional right of access to the courts and that such access was to be adequate and effective5. Moreover, the court held that the DOC had failed to act in accordance with constitutional standards. The court also found that the DOC was not in a position to meet the offenders' needs in areas such as providing the inmates with appropriate training so as to utilize the library. It also held that the library had failed to obtain updated legal materials and that it had not provided prisoners with photocopying facilities6. Moreover, the court observed that prisoners belonged to two groups and that these offenders had not been provided with adequate services. The first group was composed of offenders on a lockdown status or in other words it was composed of offenders who had been deprived of the bodily right of entry to the law library. Such offenders were on occasion denied access to the courts. The second group consisted of offenders who either could not speak English or who were illiterate7. The court accepted the
Friday, August 23, 2019
Summary chapter 7 - Essay Example Schloss and Schmidt (2006) stress that special education is a collaborative process and the consultant teacher plays a crucial role in it. The consulting teacher provides services to both secondary teachers as well as their students. Key elements of effective collaboration are willing participants, understanding roles of the two teachers, agreement on goals, sharing responsibility for the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s problem, sharing responsibility for success (failure) of the intervention developed. The authors identify a number of advantages of using the consulting teacher and some of these benefits include increased level of students, efficient teamwork, reduction of costs of special education. Exposing nondisabled students to collaborating with disabled learners has a positive impact on both parties as students acquire the necessary communicative skills. Schloss and Schmidt (2006) note that it is possible to develop an effective consultant teacher program by considering characteristics of the consultant teacher, responsibilities of consultants, gaining acceptance. The consultant teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibilities include identification of the problem behavior, establishing objectives, designing the program, developing an evaluation plan, provision of in-service training, implementation and monitoring of the program, termination of the program, dissemination of results. It is also noted that resource rooms may be a good alternative to the secondary setting. Schloss, M.A., & Schmidt, R.J. (2006). Collaboration and the role of the consultant teacher. In P.J. Schloss, M.A. Schloss, & C.N. Schloss (Eds.), Instructional methods for secondary students with learning behaviour problems (pp. 176-193). New York, NY:
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Circadian Rhythms Essay 1. Describe how circadian rhythms are associated with sleep deprivation. 2. Explain the results of the sleep deprivation assessment. 3. Do you agree, or disagree, with the results. Why, or why not? 4. If you are sleep deprived, what steps could you take to get more or better quality of sleep? Alternatively, if you are not sleep deprived, what techniques allow you to get quality sleep most nights of the week? Circadian rhythms: Their role and dysfunction in affective disorder Press conference on the occasion of the 23rd ECNP Congress 2010, Amsterdam All humans are synchronised to the rhythmic light-dark changes that occur on a daily basis. Rhythms in physiological and biochemical processes and behavioural patterns persist in the absence of all external 24-hour signals from the physical environment, with a period that is close to 24 hours. These rhythms are referred to as Ã ´circadianÃ ´, from the Latin Ã ´circa diemÃ ´ (Ã ´about a dayÃ ´), and are attributable to internal biological clocks, driven by a major circadian pacemaker in the brain. The circadian pacemaker is entrained each day to the 24-hour solar cycle, which is the major Ã ´zeitgeberÃ ´ (literally time-giver). Other zeitgebers are food intake, activity, or social cues, e.g. the alarm clock. Good temporal entrainment allows for optimal performance at the right time of the day, because being able to anticipate future tasks allows the appropriate physiological and psychological preparation. However, our modern society often imposes deviations from the regular work-rest-scheme, as in shift work, which results in problems with entrainment. Failure to adapt to environmental and societal time cues leads to misalignment of internal biological clocks. This Ã ´dysentrainmentÃ ´ comes with enhanced risk of errors and accidents, loss of productivity, and health risks such as increased propensity for cancer, depression, sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, decreased immune responses and even life span. Hence, people with circadian rhythm disruption caused by shift work often develop glucose intolerance, diabetes and hypertension, and maybe cancer. The recent discovery of the core molecular circadian clock machinery has dramatically increased interest in the impact of circadian dysregulation on mental and physical health. Molecular basis of circadian rhythms Circadian rhythms are directed by a master biological clock in a specific brain structure of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Apart from the SCN, the body has circadian oscillators in all brain regions and peripheral tissues, for example the liver (Schulz Steimer, 2009, Bechtold et al., 2010). The SCN is synchronised daily by environmental signals Ã¢â¬â mainly light (Wirz-Justice, 2006). Receiving information on lighting conditions directly from the retina, the SCN drives secretion of the pineal gland hormone melatonin as well as and many peripheral clocks, and their outputs modulate the SCN through feedback or feed-forward effects. Thus, in the body there is a hierarchy of interacting clocks (Schulz, 2007). In all cells, the expression of many genes changes rhythmically over 24 hours. Specific circadian genes such as CLOCK, BMAL1, and PER are responsible for the main SCN clockworking machinery as well as subsidiary clocks in other parts of the body. In m ice with mutations in time-keeping genes, deviant circadian sleep-wake and other rhythms can be observed. In addition, new interest in the role of circadian dysregulation in psychiatric disorders has arisen from the finding that a mutation in a core circadian clock gene induces hyperactivity, decreased sleep, and mania-like behaviour in mice (Turek, 2008). Animal studies were the key development that brought the field to its present exciting position, because their findings suggested that Ã ´clock genesÃ ´ are directing the circadian rhythms in all physiological processes. Circadian disturbances: clinical impact on affective disorders In healthy individuals, physiological and biochemical variables such as body temperature, cortisol and melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), noradrenaline and serotonin exhibit a circadian rhythm. However, in patients with affective disorders, many of these circadian rhythms are disturbed in phase and amplitude (Schulz Steimer, 2009; McClung, 2007). For instance, women with depression have a greater degree of variability in the timing of physiological and endocrine rhythms. Dysregulation of circadian rhythms and sleep disturbances are also core elements of bipolar disorder, and might be involved in its pathogenesis (Dallaspezia Benedetti, 2009). Clinicians have learned the enormous importance of synchronising agents (Ã ´zeitgebersÃ ´) to entrain rhythms in patients with mood disorders, and how useful they are as novel treatments (e.g. light, melatonin). With regard to major depressive disorder, almost all patients present with sleepÃ disturbances and altered circadian rhythms including hormonal secretion, cardiac function, and body temperature. Sleep disruption is a major symptom in depression, with over 90% of patients showing sleep complaints that affect daytime functioning (Thase, 1999). Insomnia often appears before the onset of mood disorder symptoms and may persist into clinical remission: sleep disturbances are known to be a frequent residual symptom of depression, and the presence of insomnia marks an increased risk of relapse or recurrence. Sleep difficulties often are the key factor that causes depressed patients to seek medical help, and relief of sleep disturbances is important to encourage compliance with antidepressant medication. Associated with chronic depression, sleep disturbance can have as great an impact on health-related quality of life as the mental illness itself (Katz McHorney, 2002). It is well known that changes in clinical state are accompanied by shifts in timing of the sleep-wake cycle. The switch out of depression is often associated with a spontaneous sleep deprivation. Conversely, a prescri bed sleep deprivation can rapidly show antidepressive activity. Even more strikingly, a phase advance of sleep timing can induce longer-lasting antidepressant effects, suggesting an intimate functional relationship between sleep, its timing, and the depressive state. In healthy individuals and in patients with affective disorders, there is a close link between circadian rhythms, the stability of mood, and sleep regulation. How to reset the human biological clock in affective disorders In clinical practice, sleep disturbances in depression generally can be improved with effective antidepressant medication. However, commonly used modern antidepressants may be sleep-disturbing, particularly early in treatment, often to the extent that a sedative or hypnotic compound has to be prescribed concomitantly (Mayers Baldwin, 2005). The search for novel antidepressants has focused primarily on drug development, with the role of psychotherapy and cognitive behavioural therapy to help depressive patients being well accepted. Surprisingly though, clinical application of chronobiological research, so called chronotherapeutics, appears not to fit into any conventional category, and is mostly neglected as putative treatment. Chronotherapeutics Chronotherapeutics is defined as controlled exposure to environmental stimuliÃ that act on biological rhythms (e.g. light) or direct manipulations of sleep in order to achieve therapeutic effects in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. One major aim of chronotherapeutics is to synchronise impaired circadian rhythms. Today the range of chronotherapeutic indications not only comprises affective disorders such as major depression (seasonal and non-seasonal), bipolar disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder and depression during pregnancy, but also bulimia nervosa, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dementia, ParkinsonÃ ´s disease, and shift work and jet-lag disturbances (Wirz-Justice et al., 2009). Chronotherapeutic elements include light therapy, dark therapy or blue-blocking sunglasses, wake therapy (total or partial sleep deprivation in the second half of the night), phase advance of the sleep-wake cycle, and exogenously administered melatonin. Light therapy as a zeitgeber has been used to resynchronise disturbed sleep schedules back to a more normal pattern. Light is also an effective antidepressant, acting on many of the same neurotransmitter systems and brain structures as antidepressant drugs. What is fascinating about light therapy is that it is the first treatment in psychiatry that developed directly out of basic neurobiology research related to seasonal hibernation and reproduction in rodents. Light therapy is effective for all groups of major depression Ã¢â¬â not only for the seasonal subtype (SAD), for which it is well recognized as the treatment of choice. As an adjuvant to antidepressants in unipolar depressive patients, or lithium in bipolar patients, morning light hastens and potentiates the antidepressant response. Light therapy shows benefit even for patients with chronic depression of 2 years or more, and provides a viable alternative for patients who refuse, resist or cannot tolerate medication, or for whom drugs may be contraindicated, as in antepartum depression (Wirz-Justice et al., 2005). In addition, light therapy has been successfully used in other psychiatric or neurological illnesses, including bulimia nervosa and AlzheimerÃ ´s disease. Dark therapy has yielded positive results to control symptoms in acute mania and to calm `rapid-cyclingÃ ´ bipolar patients in the manic phase Ã¢â¬â a group with one of the highest suicide rates among the mentally ill. By keeping patients in the dark and extending rest-sleep for periods of 10 to 14 hours, the mania episode could be ended. Dark therapy is theoretically interesting for its rapid effects, but is not veryÃ practical. One alternative at present being investigated is the use of blue-blocking sunglasses. Blue is the wavelength to which the circadian system is particularly sensitive, thus by blocking this range in the light spectrum we can induce circadian darkness while not impairing the patients vision. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland only at night, and is suppressed by light. Cued by darkness, melatonin is especially important for the onset of sleep, but is also involved in many other systems cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and metabolic. If rhythms are out of sync, as in depression, then melatonin rhythms also occur at the wrong time thus accentuating the sleep disturbance. Exogenously administered, melatonin acts as a zeitgeber to synchronise circadian rhythms. In addition, its thermoregulatory action is important to induce a rapid onset of sleep, though it is not a sedative age nt per se. Wake therapy (a single nights sleep deprivation) is the most rapid antidepressant available today: approximately 60% of patients, independent of diagnostic subtype, respond with marked improvement within hours. A single nights sleep deprivation induces similar brain changes as many weeks of antidepressant drugs (Benedetti and Smeraldi, 2009). Relapse after recovery sleep can be prevented by daily light therapy, concomitant administration of antidepressants (SSRIs), lithium (for bipolar patients), or a short phase advance of sleep over 3 days. Combinations of these interventions show great promise (Wirz-Justice et al., 2005, 2009). Despite the growing evidence for the efficacy of the available chronotherapeutic methods, it is surprising how limited the use of these treatments still is. Given the rapid action of chronotherapeutics, lack of side effects, and easy combination possibilities, how can sleep physicians and psychiatrists be educated about their use? Perhaps it is the patients that need to be educated, who are much more interested in non-pharmaceutic approaches? Obviously, treatments that are not patentable do not make profits for industry, thus denying the commercial marketing model used for drugs. Because they do not go through official clinical trial registration at federal regulatory agencies, chronotherapeutic treatments are not on the list for insurance reimbursement. On account of their simplicity, chronotherapeutics contrast with high-tech medicine, and for this reason are often not taken seriously. Clinical implications In clinical practice there is still rather widespread ignorance about circadian sleep disturbances and chronotherapeutics in spite of the significant evidence base. How can wider dissemination of chronotherapeutics be achieved? First, enterprising doctors should try them out. Only with first-hand experience does the reality of efficacy and response emerge. Second, the techniques should be taught in medical school and during residency Ã¢â¬â since it is the younger generation that is most open to change and use of cogent alternatives to medication. The nonprofit, multilingual patients website www.cet.org and clinicians website www.chronotherapeutics.org of the Center for Environmental Therapeutics (CET) illustrate some first attempts to meet this Phase 3 educational challenge. Third, through its societies, the field of chronotherapeutics needs to advocate recognition for reimbursement. In the treatment of affective disorders, chronotherapeutics offer a new synthesis of non-pharmacol ogic interventions designed to accelerate remission in patients with depression and bipolar disorder. Combining chronotherapeutics with concomitant or follow-up medication shows great promise. Given the urgent need for new strategies to treat patients with residual depressive symptoms, clinical trials of wake therapy and/or adjuvant light therapy, coupled with follow-up studies of long-term recurrence, are of high priority. Conclusion Circadian dysfunction can have drastic consequences on brain functions. Increasing evidence suggests that disrupted temporal organisation impairs behaviour, cognition, and affect (Benca et al., 2009). Disruption of circadian clock genes impairs sleep-wake cycle and behavioural rhythms, which may be implicated in mental disorders. Several different psychiatric disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), schizophrenia, and borderline-related disorders are commonly associated with abnormalities in circadian rhythms. In particular, biological clocks play a major role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Synchronising impaired circadian rhythms, improving sleep, or paradoxically staying awake most of the night can be extremely helpful to treat patients with depression and bipolar disorder. Chronotherapeutic combinations of light and wake therapy achieve fast results and, by reducingÃ residual symptoms, also minimise relapse over many months. In addition, chronotherapeutics seem to be a major facilitator of drug response, and, in combination with antidepressants, a promising method to stabilise patients over the long term. Researchers are working on extending our knowledge concerning pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical ways to alter circadian rhythms. Recent discoveries of molecular clocks responsible for the generation of circadian rhythms provide novel insights into temporal disruption, offering new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of affective disorders. Sleep Drive and Your Body Clock * Sleep Topics Most people notice that they naturally experience different levels of sleepiness and alertness throughout the day, but what causes these patterns? Sleep is regulated by two body systems: sleep/wake homeostasis and the circadian biological clock. When we have been awake for a long period of time, sleep/wake homeostasis tells us that a need for sleep is accumulating and that it is time to sleep. It also helps us maintain enough sleep throughout the night to make up for the hours of being awake. If this restorative process existed alone, it would mean that we would be most alert as our day was starting out, and that the longer we were awake, the more we would feel like sleeping. In this way, sleep/wake homeostasis creates a drive that balances sleep and wakefulness. Our internal circadian biological clocks, on the other hand, regulate the timing of periods of sleepiness and wakefulness throughout the day. The circadian rhythm dips and rises at different times of the day, so adults stron gest sleep drive generally occurs between 2:00-4:00 am and in the afternoon between 1:00-3:00 pm, although there is some variation depending on whether you are a Ã¢â¬Å"morning personÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"evening person.Ã¢â¬ The sleepiness we experience during these circadian dips will be less intense if we have had sufficient sleep, and more intense when we are sleep deprived. The circadian rhythm also causes us to feel more alert at certain points of the day, even if we have been awake for hours and our sleep/wake restorative process would otherwise make us feel more sleepy. Changes to this circadian rhythm occur during adolescence, when most teens experience a sleep phase delay. This shift in teens circadian rhythm causes them to naturally feel alert later at night, makingÃ it difficult for them to fall asleep before 11:00 pm. Since most teens wake up early for school and other commitments, this sleep phase delay can make it difficult to get the sleep teens need an average of 9 1/4 hours, but at least 8 1/2 hours. This sleep deprivation can influence the circadian rhythm; for teens the strongest circadian Ã¢â¬Å"dipsÃ¢â¬ tend to occur between 3:00-7:00 am and 2:00-5:00 pm, but the morning dip (3 :00-7:00 am) can be even longer if teens havenÃ¢â¬â¢t had enough sleep, and can even last until 9:00 or 10:00 am. The circadian biological clock is controlled by a part of the brain called the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN), a group of cells in the hypothalamus that respond to light and dark signals. From the optic nerve of the eye, light travels to the SCN, signaling the internal clock that it is time to be awake. The SCN signals to other parts of the brain that control hormones, body temperature and other functions that play a role in making us feel sleepy or awake. In the mornings, with exposure to light, the SCN sends signals to raise body temperature and produce hormones like cortisol. The SCN also responds to light by delaying the release of other hormones like melatonin, which is associated with sleep onset and is produced when the eyes signal to the SCN that it is dark. Melatonin levels rise in the evening and stay elevated throughout the night, promoting sleep. In teenagers, research has shown that melatonin levels in the blood naturally rise later at night than in most children and adul ts. Since teens may have difficulty going to bed early to get enough sleep, it can help to keep the lights dim at night as bedtime approaches. It can also help to get into bright light as soon as possible in the morning. Circadian disruptions such as jet lag put us in conflict with our natural sleep patterns, since the shift in time and light cues on the brain forces the body to alter its normal pattern to adjust. This is why jet lag can leave travelers feeling poorly and having more difficulty thinking and performing well. But these symptoms can also occur in everyday life, when the circadian rhythm is disrupted by keeping long and irregular hours. Because of this, it is important to keep a regular sleep schedule and allow plenty of time for quality sleep, allowing these two vital biological components the sleep/wake restorative process and the circadian rhythm to help us perform at our best. References Circadian rhythms: Their role and dysfunction in affective disorder. (10, April 30). Retrieved from http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-08/econ-crt082610.php# Sleep Drive and Your Body Clock | National Sleep Foundation Information on Sleep Health and Safety. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/sleep-topics/sleep-drive-and-your-body-clock Good sleeping habits begin with a regular bedtime routine. If you thought that was just for kids, its time to reconsider the importance of pre-sleep rituals in your life. A relaxing bedtime routine helps to prepare your brain and body for bed and promotes restful sleep. | If you try to jump straight from the swirling thoughts and frantic activity of your everyday life into a deep sleep, chances are youll be unsuccessful. Thats because your mind and body arent controlled by flipping a switch to the off position in that way. However, establishing a soothing bedtime routine as an integral part of your sleeping habits sets the stage for a good nights sleep. Humans are creatures of habit and our natural body rhythms crave consistency. So, when youre planning your bedtime routine, keep things simply and easy because your ritual needs to be something you can do every single night. If you make it too lengthy or intricate youre setting yourself up for failure. Your pre-sleep behaviors should be soothing and relaxing. The aim is to give yourself the time and space to wind down from the stresses of the day and reach a calming state of relaxation to make it easier to fall asleep. If your sleeping habits include some of the following, youll be well on your way to establishing an effective bedtime routine. Take a warm bath A drop in body temperature helps to trigger the need for sleep so a warm bath (or a soak in the hot-tub) may help you fall asleep faster. You can enhance this effect by using aromatherapy products (bath oils, scented candles and so on) with calming properties. Practice Relaxation Techniques Todays fast-paced world tends to make us tense and irritable, which can really interfere with your ability to sleep well. Spending some time on relaxing activities (breathing exercises, yoga, massage, meditation, or entle stretches) before bed can lower anxiety levels and calm your body and mind. | Have a Bedtime Snack A bowl of nachos or that last slice of pizza definitely shouldnt have a place in your bedtime routine. But, certain foods and drinks can have a positive effect on your sleep. Some foods contain an amino-acid called tryptophan that can make you feel sleepy. Remember that glass of warm milk your mom used to urge you to drink? She knew what she was doing because milk contains tryptophan. In addition to milk, many dairy products such cheese and yogurt contain this chemical, as do soy products, poultry, whole-grains and many seeds/nuts. So, a glass of milk and a handful of wholewheat crackers could be a good addition to your sleeping habits. Many herbal teas can have a relaxing and calming effect, as well. Avoid Sleep-Destroying Activities Foods Any activity that stimulates your brain or body (with the noticeable exception of love-making) can sabotage your bedtime routine. Stay away from horror movies, work e-mail, strenuous exercise, caffeine, alcohol, tobacco, and spicy foods. Also, watch out for unexpected side effects of prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications and natural remedies that you may take for other conditions. Changing your sleeping habits and establishing a bedtime routine that encourages deep, restful sleep takes time and determination but the rewards are well worth the effort.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Yum! Pizza-Hut KFC Yum! Brands Inc, Pizza Hut, and KFC The fast food industry has exploded over the preceding century in both the United States and foreign markets. Rising income, greater affluence among a larger percentage of American households, higher divorce rates, and the marriage of people later in life contributed to the rising number of single households and the demand for fast food (Krug (2004) pg. 632). In 2004, Yum! Brands, Inc. was the worlds largest fast food company. It operated more that 33,000 KFC, Taco Bell, Pizza Hut, Long John Silvers, and AW restaurants worldwide. Yum! Brands also operated more that 12,000 restaurants outside the United States (Krug (2004) pg. 627). In 2004, the company was focusing on international strategy and portfolio management to develop a strong market share with little high growth markets. The companies main focus in 2004 was to focus its international strategy on developing strong market share positions in a small number of high-growth markets such as Japan, Canada, the United Kingdom, China, Australia, Korea, and Mexico (Krug (2004) pg. 627). International strategy is based on diffusion and adaptation of the parent companys knowledge and expertise to foreign markets. The primary goal of the strategy is worldwide exploitation of the parent firms knowledge and capabilities (Dess, Lumkin, Eisner 2007 pg. 256). The analysis begins by looking at the strengths of the firm. Yum! Brands, Inc. has numerous strengths throughout its internal environment. The company was the market leader in the chicken, pizza, Mexican, and seafood segments of the U.S. fast food industry. It operates more than 33,000 units worldwide (Krug (2004) pg. 627). The focus of the company went from individual to multibranded units. Multibranded units attracted a larger consumer base by offering a broader menu selection in one location. The company operates more than 2400 multibrand restaurants in the U.S (Krug (2004) pg. 628). An additional strength within its internal environment comes from franchising. Franchising allowed firms to expand more quickly, minimize capital expenditures, and maximize return on invested capital (Krug (2004) pg. 633). Franchising has the advantage of limiting the risk exposure that a firm has in overseas markets while expanding the revenue base of the parent company (Dess, Lumkin, Eisner 2007 pg . 265). As we have come to realize, companies are never perfect and can have numerous weaknesses within its internal environment. Long distances between headquarters and foreign franchises made it more difficult to control the quality of individual restaurants. Large distances also caused servicing and support problems, and transportation and other resource costs were higher. In addition, time, cultural, and language differences increased communication problems and made it more difficult to get timely and accurate information (Krug (2004) pg. 635). A companys opportunities are the most influential to building an effective strategy. As the U.S. market matured, more restaurants turned to international markets to expand sales. Foreign markets were attractive because of their large customer bases and comparatively low competition. A great opportunity for Yum! Brands Inc. is to move its investment locations to Mexico. From a regional point of view, Latin America is appealing because of its close proximity to the United States, language and cultural similarities, and the potential for a future World Free Trade Area of the Americas, which would eliminate tariffs on trade within North and South America (Krug (2004) pg. 627). The external environment creates numerous threats for Yum! Brands Inc. One of the prime threats Yum! Brands, Inc. faces from the external environment is the increasing age in the population. Restaurants rely heavily on teenagers and college-aged workers. As the population ages, fewer young workers are available to fill food service jobs. Many restaurants were forced to hire less reliable workers, which affected both service and restaurant cleanliness. An additional weakness was that turnover rates were notoriously high. The National Restaurant Association estimated that 96% of all fast food workers quit within a year (Krug (2004) pg. 633). Another giant threat the company faces is the proliferation of new diets. Many Americans were eating pizza less often as they pursued the Atkins Diet (low carbohydrates), Ã¢â¬Å"The ZoneÃ¢â¬ (balanced meals containing equal parts of carbohydrates, protein, and unsaturated fat), or a traditional low fat diet (Krug (2004) pg. 632). Chicken costs were also a threat to the company. A boneless chicken breast, which cost $1.20 per pound in early 2001, cost $2.50 per pound in 2004, an increase of more than 100 percent. Profit margins were being squeezed from both the revenue and cost sides (Krug (2004) pg. 632). In 2004, Yum! Brands Inc. started to pay more attention to portfolio management. The key purpose of creating portfolio models is to assist a firm in achieving a balanced portfolio of businesses. Businesses whose profitability, growth, and cash flow characteristics would complement each other and add up to a satisfactory overall corporate performance. Imbalance, for example, could be caused either by excessive cash generation with too few growth opportunities or by insufficient cash generation to fund the growth requirements in the portfolio (Dess, Lumkin, Eisner 2007 pg. 214). When using portfolio strategy approaches, a corporation tries to create synergies and shareholder value in a number of ways. One of the best portfolio strategy approaches is the Boston Consulting Groups (BCG) growth/share matrix. When using the (BCG) each business unit is broken down into four different quadrants, stars, cash cows, question marks, and dogs. Stars are the business units competing in high-growth industries with relatively high market shares. Question marks compete in high growth industries with weak market shares. Cash cows are business units with high market shares in low growth industries. Finally, dogs have weak market shares in low growth industries (Dess, Lumkin, Eisner 2007 pg. 214). Yum! Brands Inc. has several business units that are considered cash cows. The first business unit that is a cash cow is Pizza Hut. In 2003, Pizza Huts sales were 5 billion dollars. It has almost 50 percent of the industries market share. Although its market share is fairly high, its growth rate is only 1.3 percent. The average sales per unit are $605,700 throughout its 7,523 units (Krug (2004) pg. 631. Another cash cow is Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC). As well as Pizza Hut, KFC is also the market leader in the chicken chain. In 2003, KFCs total sales were almost 5 billion dollars, more than 50 percent of the market share in the chicken chain segment. KFC had a growth rate of 2.8 percent. The average sales per unit are $897,800 throughout its 5,524 units. Despite its dominance, KFC is slowly losing market share as other chicken chains increases sales at a faster rate. Sales indicated that KFCs share of the chicken segment fell from a high of 64 percent in 1993, a 10 year drop of 14 percent (Krug (2004) pg. 631). The last cash cow of Yum! Brands Inc. is Taco Bell. Taco Bell is Yum Brand Inc. most profitable among the business units. In 2003, its sales were 5.3 billion dollars, averaging $879,700 per unit. Although it has a high market rate, it only has a growth rate of 2.8 percent (Krug, (2004) pg. 631). Taco Bell was able to generate greater overall profits because of its lower operating cost (Krug (2004) pg. 627). Its profits also were greater because the cooking machinery was simple, less costly, and required less space then a pizza oven or chicken broiler (Krug (2004) pg. 631). Despite the fact that the company has many cash cows throughout its business units, it also has two dogs in AW restaurants and Long John Silvers. In 2003, AW had sales of only 200 million dollars. That is over 5 billion dollars less than the sales that Taco Bell exceeded. Additionally, Long John Silvers had sales of 777 million dollars, averaging $640,000 throughout its units. Its growth rate was a low 2.8 percent six percent less than the industry leader McDonalds (Krug, (2004) pg. 631). Even though there are numerous benefits of portfolio models, there are also some downsides. First, the approach views each Strategic Business Unit (SBU) as a stand-alone entity, ignoring common core business practices and value-creating activities that may hold promise for synergies across business units. Second, unless care is exercised, the process becomes largely mechanical, substituting an oversimplified graphical model for the important contributions for the CEOs experience and judgment. Third, the reliance on Ã¢â¬Å"strict rulesÃ¢â¬ regarding resource allocation across SBUs can be detrimental to a firms long term viability. Finally, while colorful and easy to comprehend the imagery of the BCG matrix can lead to some troublesome and overly simplistic prescriptions (Dess, Lumkin, Eisner 2007 pg. 216). Since 2004, Yum! Brands Inc. has been narrowing its focus on an international strategy. An international strategy is achieved by developing a strong market share position in a small number of high growth markets. There are a few advantages of international expansion. First, is it increases the size of potential markets for a firms products and services (Dess, Lumkin, Eisner 2007 pg. 243). Second, is reducing the costs of research and development as well as operating costs. Finally, it can enable a firm to optimize the physical location for every activity in its value chain (Dess, Lumkin, Eisner 2007 pg. 247). There are four risks when dealing with international strategy, political risk, economic risk, currency risk, and management risk. Political and economic risk can be any where from social unrest, military turmoil, elections, and even violent conflict or terrorist attacks. Any country that has this high risk is less attractive for most types of business. Currency risk can pose as a substantial risk for companies. When business units are in different countries they must pay very close attention to the exchange rates. Even a small change in the exchange rate can result in a significant difference in the cost of production or net profit when doing business overseas. Management risk is the risk manager face when they must respond to the inevitable differences that they encounter in foreign markets. Managers must also pay very close attention to the culture of the country they are looking to put there business units in (Dess, Lumkin, Eisner 2007 pg. 248-249). In conclusion, the SWOT analysis has given us a good view of the internal and external environments for Yum! Brands Inc. It has shown what the company can use for the building blocks for the strategic plan. To be successful, the firm must come across all the factors in the analysis. The Boston Consulting Group has shown which of the business units throughout Yum Brands Inc. are the most successful, and the units that need vast improvement. For Yum Brands Inc. to succeed with its international strategy, managers must pay close attention to the different risks that a country has. The international strategy must be success to develop a strong market share positions throughout the world. If the strategy fails the companys market share could drop significantly. Work Cited Krug, A. Jeffery (2004). Yum! Brands, Pizza Hut, and KFC. Appalachian State University, 627- 638. Dess, G. Gregory, Lumpkin, G.T, Eisner, B. Eisner (2007). Strategic Management 3e. McGraw-Hill.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Importance Of Environmental Protection Essay In recent decades, many environmental problems have increased as the result of human activities and unplanned management of the technological development those interference ecosystems. Therefore, a dispute between the importance of conservation and preservation of ecosystems to protect environment and the necessity to satisfy human desire by sacrifice the environment has been arise across the world. According to Glossary of Environment Statistics the term environmental protection can be defined as the prevention to conserve and preserve the standard healthy level of environmental media by reducing the production of pollutants or polluting substances in environmental media (1997, internet).Various human activities have induce many undesirable effects to the environment which can be threatening human health, economic, natural resources and gene pool of ecosystems such as pollutions, greenhouse effect, global warming and soil erosion. In this essay, it is arguable that the environmental protection is worth for fight due to the several reasons. Firstly, the environmental pollution is one of the main reasons why we should fight to protect environment. Besides, global warming is also another reason caused by the deforestation. Furthermore, warm climate change and flood also increase the opportunity of spread out pests and vector diseases. Pollution can be divided into four types; water pollution, air pollution, thermal pollution and sound pollution. Fossils fuels used in most factories, petroleum and gas usage for vehicle is the major cause of air pollution. Environment pollution can also be an addition harmful substance that could affect human health and human life (Gan, 2006, 311). Given the above, environmentalist should fight for a better environment because pollutions caused by burning of fossil fuels will results in severe environmental problems such as the occurrence of acid rain due to the production of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen monoxide (NO). Casiday and Frey mentioned that combustion process not only increases the concentration of carbon dioxide(CO2) in the atmosphere but it is also the main source in producing high level of nitrogen monoxide(NO) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). These are the two major reactants that cause the formation of acid rain. Acidity of acid rain changes the pH of the river water and lakes which then disrupt the nature habitat of aquatic organisms and reduce the chance of survival of aquatic organisms, for example fishes cannot survive due to lack of oxygen. In addition, the insoluble aluminum ions added to the water can causes water to become poisonous which can also be known as water pollution (1998, internet). For example, Norway has blamed that the sea and lakes are poisoned by the formation of acid rain for many years due to the unclean air pollution that comes from Britians power stations (Nova Science In The News, 1997, internet). Since the global concentration of carbon dioxides have increased given the reasons of combustion of fossil fuels and also human activities such as deforestation. The reasons for deforestation are usually resulted from cutting down the forests for lumber logging and also for building a new farming for animal. Forest can also be known as carbon sink because trees can be used as an absorber of carbon dioxide in the environment and in returns release some oxygen to the atmosphere. However, unplanned deforestation activities have significantly reduced the concentration of oxygen (O2) and caused the rise in temperature of the Earth. Christopher Monckton also emphasises that every doubling the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is sufficient to rise the global surface temperature by 3.26 Ã °C (2008, 3). Rise in global temperature will significantly caused ice melting, for instance, according to the My Eco Project Organization, the reports of ice melting at Arctic Retreat pre pares in the late summer 2007 surprised the experts that every week, the Arctic sea ice is continuously melting and the amount of melted ice can fill up to as large as two Britain country (2009, internet). Meanwhile, the consequence of ice melting at Arctic has increased the sea water levels. According to the evidence gathered by Shepherd and his team, they found that the sea water level has increased by 2.6% which has the same volume with 49 microns per year spread across the oceans from over the world due to the distinct value between the density and temperature of ice and sea water (University Of Leeds, 2010, internet). In addition, the polar bear will also face extinction in the future due to global warming. Based on the report from National Geographic News, several studies that have been conducted by the U.S. government has show that melting of Arctics ice that caused by the global warming will endangered two-thirds of the worlds polar bears and cause them to face extinction by 2050 (Roach, 2007, 1). Given the above fact, environmentalist should fight for a better environment and save our earth. Furthermore, environmental protection should be implemented due to warm climate changes and flood which heighten the risks of spread out pests and vector diseases. Some infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, cholera and encephalitis can also spread out rapidly throughout the whole area by mosquitoes, flies and other insects those usually adapt to live in warm weather region. As World Health Organization notes that contamination of water resources due to the occurrence of flood enlarge the chances of getting water-borne diseases and also for mosquitoes to carry disease around the environment (2010, internet). Malaria and dengue fever have threaten the Southeast Asia and South Pacific island due to the climate change as increases the population of mosquitoes and migration of refugees (Allianz Knowledge Partnership,2008.internet). Hence, it can be concluded that flood and climate change will destroy our safety health environment. Moreover, high temperature in the river will encour age the growth of algal broom and causes the water pollution index to increases and decrease the amount of oxygen supplied for the aquatic organisms. Since the river water pollution increases dramatically, the level of biochemical oxygen demand which known as BOD level also will increases. The higher the biochemical oxygen demand level will result in the higher of the pollution level. For instance, large amount of blue-green algae devastate the nature of the universal solvent and threaten the public health by releasing toxins into the water. Diseases and infection that can cause by the algaes toxin are sore throats, gastro-enteritis and skin or eye-infections (Department Of The Environment, Climate Change, Energy and Water, 2010, internet). Conclusion In conclusion, there are several factors described above that strongly supported the argument to fight for environmental protection and create a better environment. Some of the reasons include environmental air pollution which increases the concentration of carbon dioxide that caused the formation of acid rain. Another reason is one of the side effects like global warming caused by the deforestation which increases the global temperature caused the occurrence of ice melting. Moreover, the global warming change the climate become warmer and flood encouraged the growth of the pests and vectors like malaria and dengue fever to spread the disease out to the environment which increases the level of biochemical oxygen demand. Therefore, the environment should be protected for a better life in future.
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Magic of Chaos Crowley certainly helped put the boot in against monotheism but the process was already well advanced. Science, which had basically evolved out of renaissance magic, had more or less finished monotheism as a serious parasite on advanced cultures. Crowley was enthusiastic about science and appropriately so for his era, but in the work of Austin Spare we begin to detect a certain foreboding. However it is Spare's work that appears more austere and scientific when compared to some of Crowley's more baroque symbolic extravagances. Spare rejected the classical symbologies of forgotten ages and sought the magic of his own personal arcana. Using the minimum of hypotheses he evolved a magic from his own racial memories and subconscious. Independently of complex systems he developed effective techniques of enchantment and divination requiring only ordinary language and pictures. Spare's work forms the bridge between an older style of magic brought to fruition by Crowley (which derived most of its appeal, power and liberating potential from its religious style of anti-religion) and the new magic. The new approach is characterised by a kind of scientific anti-science. This is increasingly becoming known as Chaos Magic. It would be no more useful to dub Chaos Magic as pseudo-science than it would be to dub Crowley's ideas as pseudo-religion. It is astrology as it is normally practised that is mere pseudo-science much as satanism and freemasonry are pseudo-religion. Chaos Magic attempts to show that not only does magic fit comfortably within the interstices of science but that the higher reaches of scientific theory and empiricism actually demand that magic exists. This is somewhat analogous to the way in which many religious theories implied the possibility of theurgic or demonic magic. The best magic has always had a strong antinomian flavour. The most remarkable magicians have invariably fought against prevailing cultural norms and obsessions. Their victories represent not only a personal liberation but also an advance for humanity. History bequeaths us no records of the renegade shamanist magicians who must have brought about the advent of paganism, but we know a little of the anti-pagan magicians who created monotheism: Akhenaton, Moshe, Gautam, and so on. As monotheism became a steadily more repressive and obscene force, a new generation of magicians arose and fought it. Some fought too openly and were destroyed; others were more subtle and planted effective seeds of destruction on a purely philosophical level, and others hastened its destruction by taking theological and theurgical ideas to outrageous conclusions. The roll of honour is here much larger, including such notables as Gordiano Bruno, Cornelius Agrippa, John Dee, Cagliostro, Eliphas Levi, and recently, The Magic Of Chaos By Peter Carroll :: essays research papers The Magic of Chaos Crowley certainly helped put the boot in against monotheism but the process was already well advanced. Science, which had basically evolved out of renaissance magic, had more or less finished monotheism as a serious parasite on advanced cultures. Crowley was enthusiastic about science and appropriately so for his era, but in the work of Austin Spare we begin to detect a certain foreboding. However it is Spare's work that appears more austere and scientific when compared to some of Crowley's more baroque symbolic extravagances. Spare rejected the classical symbologies of forgotten ages and sought the magic of his own personal arcana. Using the minimum of hypotheses he evolved a magic from his own racial memories and subconscious. Independently of complex systems he developed effective techniques of enchantment and divination requiring only ordinary language and pictures. Spare's work forms the bridge between an older style of magic brought to fruition by Crowley (which derived most of its appeal, power and liberating potential from its religious style of anti-religion) and the new magic. The new approach is characterised by a kind of scientific anti-science. This is increasingly becoming known as Chaos Magic. It would be no more useful to dub Chaos Magic as pseudo-science than it would be to dub Crowley's ideas as pseudo-religion. It is astrology as it is normally practised that is mere pseudo-science much as satanism and freemasonry are pseudo-religion. Chaos Magic attempts to show that not only does magic fit comfortably within the interstices of science but that the higher reaches of scientific theory and empiricism actually demand that magic exists. This is somewhat analogous to the way in which many religious theories implied the possibility of theurgic or demonic magic. The best magic has always had a strong antinomian flavour. The most remarkable magicians have invariably fought against prevailing cultural norms and obsessions. Their victories represent not only a personal liberation but also an advance for humanity. History bequeaths us no records of the renegade shamanist magicians who must have brought about the advent of paganism, but we know a little of the anti-pagan magicians who created monotheism: Akhenaton, Moshe, Gautam, and so on. As monotheism became a steadily more repressive and obscene force, a new generation of magicians arose and fought it. Some fought too openly and were destroyed; others were more subtle and planted effective seeds of destruction on a purely philosophical level, and others hastened its destruction by taking theological and theurgical ideas to outrageous conclusions. The roll of honour is here much larger, including such notables as Gordiano Bruno, Cornelius Agrippa, John Dee, Cagliostro, Eliphas Levi, and recently,
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Early American literature is unique in that it is abundantly influenced by Biblical themes and ideas. Being that this country was founded by the strict, fundamentalist Puritans, it seems obvious that the literature would be pervaded by such things as the presence of evil and its impact on goodness and holiness. The Ã¢â¬Å"evilÃ¢â¬ that is found in Melville and Hawthorne is interesting because it reflects the Biblical idea of evil tempting good and attempting to convert it rather than simply destroy it. The stories of Poe reflect the turmoil and evil that is contained within a person and tempts him or her to commit evil acts. What is fascinating about this literature is that in Billy Budd, The Scarlet Letter, Ã¢â¬Å"The Imp of the Perverse,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"William Wilson,Ã¢â¬ evil is always victorious. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, it is tempting to read stories and watch films in which good always prevails and the characters live happily ever after; however, at the time of these writings, there was still an air of Calvinism and the lasting idea that mankind is innately evil. Modern society is uncomfortable with the term Ã¢â¬Å"evil,Ã¢â¬ but at the time of this literature, it was a common term that was used freely and had clear definitions. Therefore, because of the strong Biblical influence, the aforementioned tales are centered on this presence of evil and its temptation and torturing of that which is holy until goodness is overcome. MelvilleÃ¢â¬â¢s Billy Budd is a tale in which the Biblical influence is quite obvious. There are many images of snakes and serpents, which is often symbolic of Satan. Many critics read the story as an allegory to the Christ story in which Billy and Claggart Ã¢â¬Å"play the roles of Jesus and JudasÃ¢â¬ (Wright 133). There is imagery throughout th... ...he adultery and temptations in The Scarlet Letter, and the murder in both Ã¢â¬Å"The Imp of the PerverseÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"William WilsonÃ¢â¬ all were easily classified as evil. Today, many of these actions would be subscribed to the doersÃ¢â¬â¢ childhoods or to other traumatic experiences and the people themselves would not necessarily be held responsible. It is difficult in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society to classify good and evil because those areas are no longer black and white; however, in early American times, evil was easy to identify and was seen as the influence of the devil. The aforementioned literature of Melville, Hawthorne, and Poe all contains tremendous influence from the Bible and therefore displays this evil temptation from the devil himself. Sadly, in each of the stories, evil always seems to triumph, and the characters are forced to realize their own wickedness and depravities.
Macbeth's One-of-a-Kind Woman Ã Ã Ã Ã Shakespeare's Macbeth portrays the indomitable, manipulative character of Lady Macbeth through bold, sinister actions. Her character will be the subject of this essay. Ã Lily B. Campbell in her volume of criticism, Shakespeare's Tragic Heroes: Slaves of Passion, examines the effect of sin on the life of the first lady: Ã Act v presents swiftly and relentlessly the results of passion, of the passion which has become mortal sin. First it is Lady Macbeth that we see enduring the fate of the sinful in whom fear and remorse have already begun to effect the punishment for evil. That Shakespeare chose to manifest Lady Macbeth's melancholy as a disturbance in her sleep shows that he was a student of the moral philosophy of the time, for as we have seen earlier, all the accounts of fear are concerned with the effect of fear on sleep. (232) Ã In Shakespeare and Tragedy John Bayley interprets Lady Macbeth's character through her speech: Ã 'The milk of human kindness' and the 'illness' that should attend ambition are cruder concepts, in Lady Macbeth's mouth, than they now seem to be. She is not saying her husband is too kind a man for this business, and with too healthy a spirit; 'kindness' means human nature, and Macbeth's is not mature or manly, has not learnt the necessary hardness of the world. Her husband is in a sense her child, fed with the milk which is natural to her, and when the word recurs in the Senecan speech which follows, she calls on the spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, schemes of murder, to turn her milk to gall. She will feed him on that to produce an appropriate response, as the armed men in the tale sprang from the sowing of dragon's teeth... ...Blakemore Evans. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972. Ã Knights, L.C. "Macbeth." Shakespeare: The Tragedies. A Collectiion of Critical Essays. Alfred Harbage, ed. Englewwod Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964. Ã Mack, Maynard. Everybody's Shakespeare: Reflections Chiefly on the Tragedies. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1993. Ã Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Macbeth. http://chemicool.com/Shakespeare/macbeth/full.html, no lin. Ã Siddons, Sarah. "Memoranda: Remarks on the Character of Lady Macbeth." The Life of Mrs. Siddons. Thomas Campbell. London: Effingham Wilson, 1834. Rpt. in Women Reading Shakespeare 1660-1900. Ann Thompson and Sasha Roberts, eds. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1997. Ã Wilson, H. S. On the Design of Shakespearean Tragedy. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1957.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The overall initiative to increase equity and funding in public educational institutions in Pennsylvania brought about the creation of the Good Schools Pennsylvania Organization (GSP). Since its creation, the organization has undergone many changes and lobbied for the creation of an environment wherein important actors and legislation coincides with the needs of the growing student population. These struggles brought about new trends wherein it both opened up avenues for change to occur and encourage new parameters wherein goals and objectives are integrated with mandated standards. Recognizing the relevant contribution that GSP has done to the citizenry and target group, this proposal aims to increasingly widen the capability of the organization to address student needs. The prescribed programs for 2010 under three (3) categories seeks to intensify the approach wherein it both looks into the possibilities and scenarios that may happen during that time and appropriating the needed strategies that can intensify the needed outcomes for change. Likewise, by allowing these diverse program alternatives, it seeks to compensate the loopholes that may be associated in the process of planning, implementation and facilitation. At the same time, these proposals take into consideration the needs of all relevant actors who serve as potential members and benefactors in the success of the initiatives of GSP. By taking into account the relevance of these people, GSP can increase its arm in reaching out and fostering the commitment towards community building and empowerment. Such ideals clearly allows each parties to recognize their individual capabilities in the process of participation With all of these, the organizers seek to intensify the efforts given by GSP. It is in this light that the organization can remain committed in addressing the increasing challenges and trends of 21st century education. I. Introduction and Background The pursuit for creating an environment for equal opportunities among students via appropriate delegation and funding has been the integral foundation for the creation of the Good Schools Pennsylvania. Since its inception in 2001, the organization has continued to recognize the needs of students by making sure students in the district get the sufficient and quality education needed to help them combat the trends of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society (Good Schools Pennsylvania, 2008). These efforts have paved the way for new alternatives in addressing public education and opened up arenas for every actor in the community to take part in the process of collaboration and change. Looking at it, the initiative of Good Schools Pennsylvania GSP can be described in one sentence. It involves seeking new ways wherein legislators provide equitable funding in public education to ensure that students get the quality of education they need and foster increased accountability and responsibility among actors involved in the process (Good Schools Pennsylvania, 2008). With these renewed interest in seeking outcomes for development in budget appropriation and education, it has opened up the door for greater cooperation among the state and the integration of vibrant members who have paved the way for the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. Dwelling further, the role of the GSP is to encourage organizers to come up with new approaches that can motivate different sectors of society to come up and take the stand towards achieving equal education for all. Good Schools Pennsylvania argues that Ã¢â¬Å"among the constituents who have stood with us are students and retirees, clergy and lay leaders, parents and teachers, school board members and superintendents, and business and civic leadersÃ¢â¬ (p. 1). With these continuing initiatives to seek out new members who are committed towards changing the level of education of Pennsylvania, the GSP has been vibrant in addressing the needs of public education in the community. Realizing these relevant objectives of the organization, it greatly coincides with our purpose to find alternatives that can strengthen and improve the capability of GSP to facilitate and clamor for new ways to increase accountability and equity in public education. By elaborating on several new strategies and outlining them in three possible scenarios, our group can maximize the potential of GSP and implement the new ideas that can expand the scope of practice, intensify efforts for commitment, and be adaptive to the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s current trends. II. Research For the initiative in 2010 to be completely realized, it is essential that the organizers understand and comprehend the developments happening within the GSP. Under this facet, we need to know the truths surrounding education and the current legislation that outlines public education funding. This is relevant because it helps us integrate new policies in-line with specific standards and objectives mandated by law. Another significant element that needs to be considered is the cost of study in Pennsylvania. Its importance revolves around the capability to make budget estimates in proposed initiatives to actively create adequate funding to support and help students in public education. Lastly, there needs to be an understanding on what programs are in place that the GSP provides the citizenry. By synthesizing these programs, it can create an active environment wherein it can be changed, renewed or developed to suite the needs of members, potential members and target contributors. Dwelling into the first facet, it can be seen that Pennsylvania has undergone several legislative changes that had improved the way budget is allocated. This has been brought about by the realities and scenarios that public education has faced in the region. Good Schools Pennsylvania argues that in Ã¢â¬Å"2005, nearly 50 percent of PennsylvaniaÃ¢â¬â¢s eleventh graders scored below proficient in math and 35 percent of eleventh grade students scored below proficient in reading on the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s standardized testsÃ¢â¬ (p. 2) At the same time, there has been disparities in the way schools have been addressing the way they had adhered to the objectives mandated by NCLB of 2001. Likewise, these statistics also denote increased risk among students of getting pregnant, imprisoned or engaging into substance abuse (Good Schools Pennsylvania, 2006). In response to this, the government has adopted several policies and amendments that sought to address these realities. For example, in 2004, Governor Rendell Ã¢â¬Å"appropriated funding for the first time to support early childhood education Ã¢â¬â both through the first ever state funding to expand the General Head Start pre-kindergarten program, and through an Accountability Block Grant Program that allowed school districts to target money to educational practices with a huge track record of helping students to achieve academic standardsÃ¢â¬ (p. 3). This has been considered a first step towards realizing the states role in pursuing public education that is equitable and responsible in nature. Another significant change was made in 2006 when a formal budget was introduced and implemented together with a defining the cost associated with public education. Good Schools Pennsylvania mentions that the Ã¢â¬Å"2006-2007 budget includes a first-time appropriation of $650,000 to fund a comprehensive study of the educational resources and associated costs of providing each student an education that is line with academic standardsÃ¢â¬ (p. 3). These have been significant because it can address an equal measurement of how much student needs in order to actively achieve education under mandated standards. Operating on the second element, it is crucial to decipher the numbers associated with public education because it can determine the budget that shall be allocated per district depending on the ratio and student population within a specific area. Looking at the current research, considerable development has been seen in determining the costing-out study of Pennsylvanian students. Good Schools Pennsylvania mentions that Ã¢â¬Å"by understanding these costs the state can adjust its funding system to close the gap between high-spending and low-spending school districtsÃ¢â¬ (p. 1). Upon careful consideration and research, it sees that for a student to actively achieve the given state standards, an average amount of $11, 926 must be provided (Good Schools Pennsylvania, 2007). This formula has been instrumental in determining the appropriation needed to sustain the further needs of students. Lastly, looking at the projects GSP is engaged in, it can be argued that they comprise of different models geared towards addressing the needs of its target audiences. These initiatives center on (1) engaging into legislative awareness and debate, (2) fostering community involvement, and (3) speaking out in different ways possible (Good Schools Pennsylvania, 2007). These three main facets cover a myriad of initiatives and programs that outlines the significant arenas wherein each actor can actively take part. By allowing and integrating these diverse ways of addressing the issue of public education and funding, each one can contribute and provide help in each ones capacity. Seeing all these facets, the development of 2010 programs revolve around intensifying on these three relevant ideas. Though these findings have been supplemental in carrying out objectives in the previous years, it is also necessary that further studies be conducted on these issues. This is relevant because it can seek to determine the potential challenges that public education may face amidst these new developments. For example, the formula for computing the cost of student may change over a period of a year for it is dependent on factors such as inflation, increasing expenditures, and other elements that are relevant to its computation. That is why further research on these topics remains to be an important concern to consider. III. Opposition Research It can be seen that the GSP has made significant progress since its inception in creating the consensus about creating drastic changes in the legislative level as far as addressing public education is concerned. Though this may prove to be a valid analysis, there are still setbacks that continue to hinder the organization from functioning according to its prescribed goals and objectives. Seeing this, it is essential that the organization recognize its shortcomings and try to incorporate new methods to increase the possibility of adapting to the trends of 21st century education. Looking at one institutional obstacle that hinders its capabilities is the presence of other organizations that have the same objectives and purpose. Though at a glance this may seem to be rather significant in further elaborating the needs of public education in Pennsylvania, it also denotes the limited functions associated with GSP. Being unable to synchronize its relevant goals and actions towards its counterparts would mean alienating itself with the potential of further collaboration and cooperation. Examples of these institutions that cater the same agenda as the GSP include: Education Law Center and ACCESS. These institutions in turn have overlapping objectives and ideals that are similar and related to the standpoint of GSP. Another setback that is relevant in the GSP is its dependency on contributors and benefactors. Even if its members had shown significant improvement and effort through the years in gaining potential donors, it cannot guarantee its existence primarily on this. They must have a significant support and foundation that will make them adaptable even in times of little contribution or monetary support. By allowing this scenario to occur, they shall not solely depend on these contributions but can continue to develop on new ways in continuing to promote its specific goals and objectives. Recognizing the setback in the previous section, it can be also observed that GSP is also susceptible to economic downturns. Since its continued existence revolved around contributions among benefactors, having a slow economy can slow and hamper its capability of recognizing its objectives. Seeing this, the organization has to constantly double its efforts and adapt new strategies that can intensify and implement new approaches for change. Similarly, during these periods of slowdown, the organization refocuses its approach and center on programs that creates limited budget but with increasing results. Such case only results in a limited scope in both application and practice. IV. Our Plan After reviewing the relevant history and studies associated with GSP, it is now relevant to point out and outline the scope and objectives for the plan in 2010. Among the core elements of this proposal is to (1) Effectively get our message out to prospective and current members as well as potential contributors in the community, (2) facilitate active communication among different parties and (3) Intensify the efforts brought about by the Who-Ville Presentation. These three objectives can be recognized and incorporated by including them within the scope and parameters of each specified initiative. Under these specific objectives, the proposal shall outline detailed ways wherein these approaches can be realized and achieved. In the first objective, it seeks to cater on ways wherein advertising can be made and integrating the cause and how it can contribute to the needs of the organization. While on the second facet, it outlines the communicative patterns that can maximize the potential of each project and provides new approaches that can realize the specified goals and objectives. The last part deals with seeking new opportunities that will further recognize the contribution of Who-Vile in addressing the needs of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s public education as well as the tenets promoted by GSP. With these objectives in place, the next part involves pointing out several programs that can be applied in the year 2010. Under this framework, three proposals shall be given and denoted by the current trends present in the target year. These include (1) period of net gain, (2) period of stasis, and (3) period of net loss. The formation of these three initiatives is one important aspect to make the program feasible in any scenario that the state may face during the prescribed year. At the same time, it moves to adapt to the existing trends that may come along in the selected time frame. The formulation of these three facets can minimize the setbacks that may be incurred in the timeline provided. Good School Pennsylvania (GSP) is a non-profit organization that is based upon membership as well as the employment of competent personnel that fit the requirements of the specific position of the job that they are looking for. In relation to this, GSP is also regarded as a grassroots campaign that is affiliated with other non-governmental organizations such as: the Public Education Network, the National Council of Churches, and the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Defense Fund, and the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Defense Fund. Even though GSP is not regarded as an organization that is solely based upon membership, this factor still plays an important role in its overall operation. The GSP has an active membership as they have devised many ways by which people all over the state could be able to participate in the attainment of the organizations objectives. Some of the means that the organization implemented in order to influence the people participate is by convincing to take action by writing to their legislators, speaking out through various mediums like essays and photo contest, and by connecting to their community that could help in furthering the cause of GSP (Good Schools Pennsylvania). Active membership in this organization involves helping in the offices throughout the state. GSP need active volunteers that would help them with mailings, database maintenance, and other administrative functions. In connection to these, the organization also benefit a lot from members that could help them in the next phase of their work, which involves sustaining and expanding the state policy reforms with regards to enhancing the quality and equality of education among the students in Pennsylvania. Furthermore, active members also entail aiding them in supporting the local stakeholders in making various schools accountable in the equal and effective distribution and utilization of resources (Good Schools Pennsylvania).