Wednesday, October 30, 2019

All American Poem Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

All American Poem - Essay Example It uncovers the profundity of Dickmans ethical creative ability and demands his dedication to creating his different voice and topical reach. Mayakovskys Revolver is that uncommon work that lays bear how verse battles both with life and with itself. When all is said in done Dickman is an extraordinary kind of artist, the sort to start in his followers an interest for the creator himself. One may muse on how a discussion with Yeats may go, or wish to send Robert Lowell some lively blessing via mail, yet what might one tribute for an evening of strolling with Whitman, simply listening to him bring up out, or to light both closures of ones flame with Edna St. Vincent Millay? Dickmans ballads appear to handle you by the wrist, or around the waist and aide you to a vantage point where the world looks somewhat more confident. This is particularly valid for his first book, All-American Poem, which overflows over with satisfaction, with quality, and dissatisfaction of all assortment. It is the sort of book you require your companions to peruse. Here is a selection from one of the sonnets of that gathering, "Moderate Dance," which picked up right on time consideration, along these lines numerous solicitations at readings that Dickman once clowned it was in hazard of turning into his "Free Bird": One could continue endlessly like this. What fun there is in Dickman! What inconvenience and hopelessness! There is sufficient sex and amusingness and excellence in these pages to make one swell with the rapture of presence. Yet, however characteristic the appeal of Dickmans work, his ballads are anything other than gullible. His simple style may appear to think again at history with close to a detached look, however this insouciance is won through cautious study: one of Dickmans enchantment traps is pulling off the posture of footloose novice while at the same time participating in an expert dialog with the wonderful convention. In fact, Dickmans engagement with his

Monday, October 28, 2019

Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity Essay Example for Free

Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity Essay Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity People of different religions are in contact with each other every day, and do not even realize it. Here in the United States there is a compilation of many religions. Three major religions not only in the United States, but also throughout the world are Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. There are many differences, and few similarities when comparing Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. Not only are the backgrounds of these religions similar and different, but so are the practices that they still live out to this day. Hinduism originated between 4000 and 2000 BC. Hinduism believes in Karma, â€Å"you reap what you sow,† and reincarnation. Reincarnation is the belief that after death, the soul can come back to earth in another body. The Hindu trinity is the Brahma, Vishnu, and the Shiva, which are the three aspects of the same divine being. There are four goals in the life of a Hindu. They are Kama, Artha, Dharma, and Moksha. These mean the fulfillment of certain desires, wealth, religious duties, and not wanting things. The cow and the bull are both considered sacred and should not be slaughtered. So Hindus are forbidden from eating beef. There are many festivals affiliated with the Hindu religion, because they believe it keeps them close to their gods. At least once a month, there is a Hindu festival, where they celebrate their diversity. Islam is the second largest religion in the world, and the fastest growing religion in the world. Islam is the belief in the Judeo-Christian God. Muslims are monotheistic, and believe in the five pillars of Islam. The five pillars are the Shahada, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, and the Hajj. The Shahada means testimony, Salat is for prayer, Zakat is for giving, Sawm is for fasting, and Hajj means pilgrimage. According to Muslims, Muhammad was a cornerstone of Islam, and he was god’s messenger. For Muslims, the pig is an unclean animal, and is forbidden to eat unless prepared in accordance with prescribed rules. Intoxicating drinks and substances are prohibited. Christianity is a major world religion that adapted over 2000 years ago. It is the belief that Jesus of Nazareth is the Son of God. The major text of Christianity is the Bible. The Bible concludes of an Old and a New Testament, and is a compilation of books. Christians have many ways of religious practices. There are festivals and feasts, which are usually celebrated on holidays. The communal worship takes place on Sundays and other days of the week in which people from the church come together for rituals. The last is private worship, which is used when one is alone, where they can engage in prayer, devotions, and spiritual practices. Islam is a religion founded by a prophet. In contrast, Hinduism is a group of religious traditions, established over a period of time. In Hinduism personalities do not count as much as the divine law or the dharma. So in Islam the message of Islam is far more important than the person of Muhammad himself. Unlike Christianity, Muslims do not worship their prophet. Unlike Islam, Hinduism is strictly monogamous. Christianity, Hinduism, and Islam all share similarities and differences. Unlike Hinduism, Christianity and Islam share the belief of only one god. Hindus have a god for fire, death, water, etc. The practices of Christianity and Islam are sometimes in groups, while Hinduism is practiced alone. All three religions believe in the efficacy of prayer. But Hinduism and Islam believe in the importance of remembering and reciting the names, words, and deeds of god, for inner purification. Unlike Islam and Christianity, Hinduism has the choice of an intervener between god and a person, such as a priest or a guru for assistance. Intimate relationships are not approved of in Islam and Hinduism. Dating is considered both irreligious and immoral. In these two religions along with Christianity, premarital sex is considered immoral also. In conclusion all three religions share that they believe in an afterlife, and strive for immortality. For all religions death is a normal and natural thing that leads to an eternal life. Christianity and Islam are closer together then Hinduism. Mostly Europeans adopted Christianity along with Islam in the 18th and 19th centuries. This means that both Christianity and Islam have been influenced in some ways by the European culture. The Europeans have pulled Christianity and Islam close together while the Europeans have never influenced Hinduism, which makes Hinduism different from the other two religions.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Human Genetic Screening Essay -- Genes Science Papers

Human Genetic Screening What is genetic screening? Genetic screening is the testing of cells to check for certain kinds of genes, or for potentially damaging changes to those genes. It may be defined as a systematic search for persons with a particular genotype in a defined population. Genetic screening serves as an important adjunct of modern preventive medicine. The usual approach is to identify persons whose genotype places them or their offspring at risk for genetic diseases. Such screening has the potential to lessen the devastating impact of genetic diseases. Genetic screening may be undertaken for research purposes unrelated to disease or the improvement of health. The National Academy of Sciences recommends that genetic screening is an appropriate form of medical care only when certain conditions are met. These include: (1) evidence of substantial public benefit and acceptance, (2) the benefits outweigh the costs; (3) appropriate public education can be carried out; (4) informed consent is feasible; (5) the means are available to evaluate the effectiveness and success of each step in the process (Blank, 1982). Some screening is aimed at the general population, while others are targeted at selective high-risk population; screening can also be conducted at various stages of life. There are three principal types of genetic screening. (1) Newborn screening identifies serious genetic disease at birth, permitting prompt treatment to prevent mental and physical retardation. (2) Fetal screening and prenatal diagnosis identify genetic disease in the fetus permitting selective termination of pregnancy and the opportunity to have children free of defects detectable in uterus. (3) Carrier screening identifies individuals hete... ...5. Fost, N., 1993. Genetic diagnosis and treatment, American Journal of Diseases of Children. 147(11):1190-1195. 6. Knoppers, B.M., 1986. Genetic information and the law: constains, liability and rights. Can Med Assoc J. 135(12):1257-1259. 7. Markel, H.M., 1992. The stigma of disease: implication of genetic screening. The Americal Journal of Medicine 93:209-214. 8. Rowley, P.T., 1984. Genetic screening: marvel or menace? Science 225(4658) Jul 13: 138-144. 9. Waugh, D., 1994. The human-genome project and pandor's box. Can Med Assoc J. 151(1):73. 10. "What is genetic screening" obtained from the WWW: http:/ 11. "The principles of genetics and heredity" obtained from the WWW: http:/ bin/g?docF=macro/5002/57/50.html&DBase=Articles&hits=10&context=all ¶gra phType=1&indexremove=off#0102

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Job Satisfaction Essay -- Job Mastery, Job Control

This research was conducted to assess the relationship between selected demographics, job mastery, and job satisfaction. A total 6,902 participants were gathered from the telephone and Internet provider BellSouth. A significant relationship was found between age and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was also significantly correlated with years spent with the company. Significant differences were found between gender and job satisfaction, as well as level of education and job satisfaction. These findings suggest that as age and years spent with the company increase job satisfaction also increases and job satisfaction may depend upon the level of education of the employee. The Relationship between Specific Demographic Variables, Job Mastery, and Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction serves as important factor in improving not only the general happiness of employees, but also enhancing the work performance. For these reasons, psychologists and employers alike have studied the factors that may effect overall job satisfaction among employees. For example, previous research has found a negative significant relationship between social stressors and job satisfaction (Harris, Harvey, & Kacmar, 2009). This research signified that as the social stressors of employment decreased the job satisfaction of the employee increased. Although this research was beneficial in the implication of increasing job satisfaction of employees, previous research in evaluating other factors effecting job satisfaction has not been as successful. Previous research evaluating the relationship between specific demographic factors and job satisfaction has been inconclusive (Scott, Swortzel, & Taylor, 2005). However, Harris et al. (2009) ... ... week, so that all employees would have a chance to complete the survey and the data could not be linked to the shift that the employee worked. Results Frequencies were preformed on call waiting, caller id, Internet, and multiple lines. Results indicated that 58.40% of employees did not own multiple telephone lines and 41.60% of employees did own multiple lines. Similar results were found for caller id and call waiting. Frequencies revealed that 48.40% of employees did not own caller id’s and 51.6% of employees did own caller id’s. Frequencies also indicated that 49.10% of employees did not have call waiting and 50.90% did have call waiting. The most surprising information provided by frequencies was the lack of employees who had Internet. Results indicated that only 26.10% of BellSouth employees had Internet, while 70.00% of employees did not have Internet.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

California Pizza Kitchen Case Study Essay

California Pizza Kitchen was first created in 1985 in Beverly Hills, California. By 2007 there were 213 locations throughout 28 states and 6 countries. Although 41% of the stores were based in California, keeping with the restaurants theme, the dining model flourished throughout the United States. For the second quarter of 2007, although they were faced with industry challenges such as raised commodity, labor and energy costs, they were still expected to break quarterly records with over $6 million in profits. Although they experienced good performance, the share price had declined 10% to a current value of $22.10. Susan Collyns, CFO, and her team were faced with the decision of a share repurchase program. They had little money in excess cash though, so a repurchase agreement would mean debt financing. A share repurchase would send a positive signal to the market, with future values expected to be high. The financial team also needs to decide on the appropriate capital structure. Because of the low interest rates, CPK can issue the debt needed for a repurchase agreement at a low cost. Also because they have no previous debt, this would not be a large risk and it will in fact increase the value of CPK due to decreased taxes, which comes from the tax shield. The leverage from exhibit 9 has different effects for return on equity and cost of capital. For return on equity, as you increase leverage, the ROE increases as well. At 10% debt/capital, ROE is 9.52%, 20% debt/capital, ROE is 10.19%, and 30% debt/capital, ROE is 11.05%. Using the beta equation to find the effect on cost of equity, you can see that it increases as well when the leverage increases. For 10% debt/capital, the beta of equity is .87 and cost of equity is 14.34%, 20% debt/capital, beta equity is .89 and cost of equity is 14.56%, lastly 30% debt/capital, beta equity is .915 and cost of equity is 14.84%. These increases also mean an increase in risk of the company because of the additional debt taken on. When taking into consideration the WACC equation, there will be an overall decrease in cost of equity to the firm because of the low cost of debt and the additional tax shield. When finding share prices, it is evident they will increase with each debt/capital percent. At 10% debt/capital, the price of stock will go up to $22.35, which is a 1.13% increase in price, and allows the buy back of 1.01 million shares. At 20% debt/capital structure, the price will move up to $22.60, a 2.26% increase  and can buy back 1.99 million shares. Lastly, a 30% debt/capital, the price will move to $22.86, a 2.99% increase and allow the buy back of 2.97 million shares. Again, the added value to the firm can be attributed to the present value of the tax shield that debt allows them to capture. So this allows for the buy back of shares at the new price. In my opinion, I think Susan Collyns should choose the 20% debt/capital structure. Under this structure, they should partake in a share repurchase program and buy back around 1.99 million shares. This will allow for an increase in share price that would please shareholders. There is not a huge level of risk involved in the 20% structure, it leaves room for future expansion but moderates how much debt taken on.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

disorders essays

disorders essays Causes, Symptoms, Complications and Treatments for the eating disorder Anorexia Nervosa. Eating disorders are devastating behavioral maladies brought on by a complex interplay of factors, which may include emotional and personality disorder, family pressure, a possible genetic or biological susceptibility and a culture in which there is an over abundance of food and an obsession with thinness. Eating disorders are generally characterized as bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa and eating disorders not other wise specified. According to the World of Psychology anorexia is defined as " an eating disorder characterized by an overwhelming, irrational fear of being fat, compulsive dieting to the point of self starvation and excessive weight loss."(World of Psychology Page 317). There are some causes, symptoms, complications and treatment of anorexia nervosa. There is no single cause for the eating disorder anorexia but a number of factors including emotional disorders and cultural influences. Researchers have shown that emotional disorders such as depression collaborate in causing anorexia nervosa. This is because most anorexic patients have been found to have abnormal levels of certain neurotransmitters particularly serotonin, that are associated with depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. According to a research conducted by Dr. John .E. Godine of Harvard Medical School " studies are finding that low blood levels of amino acid tryptophan, a component in food that is essential to the production of serotonin, can produce depression and may also contribute to anorexia nervosa" (Psychology Today Page 17, May 97). Researches have also shown that changes in seasons affects both depression and eating disorders and also that onset of anorexia appears to peak in May, which is also a peak month for suicide. Anxiety disorde rs are also very common with anorexia. Phobias and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) usu...

Monday, October 21, 2019

The Writers Voice in Literature and Rhetoric

The Writers Voice in Literature and Rhetoric In rhetoric and literary studies, voice is the distinctive style or manner of expression of an author or narrator.  As discussed below, voice is one of the most elusive yet important qualities in a piece of writing.   Voice is usually the key element in effective writing, says teacher and journalist Donald Murray. It is  what attracts the reader and communicates  to the reader. It is that element that gives the illusion of speech.  Murray continues: Voice carries the writers intensity and glues together the information that the reader needs to know. It is the music in writing that makes the meaning clear (Expecting the Unexpected: Teaching Myselfand Othersto Read and Write, 1989). EtymologyFrom the Latin, call The Music of a Writers Voice Voice is the sum of all strategies used by the author to create the illusion that the writer is speaking directly to the reader from the page. (Don Fry, quoted by Roy P. Clark, Writing Tools. Little, Brown, 2006) Voice is the most popular metaphor for writing style, but an equally suggestive one may be delivery or presentation, as it includes body language, facial expression, stance, and other qualities that set speakers apart from one another. (Ben Yagoda, The Sound on the Page. HarperCollins, 2004) If one means by style the voice, the irreducible and always recognizable and alive thing, then of course style is really everything. (Mary McCarthy, Writers at Work: The Paris Review Interviews, Second Series. 1977) Voice and Speech I think voice is one of the main forces that draws us into texts. We often give other explanations for what we like (clarity, style, energy, sublimity, reach, even truth), but I think its often one sort of voice or another. One way of saying this is that voice seems to overcome writing or textuality. That is, speech seems to come to us as listener; the speaker seems to do the work of getting the meaning into our heads. In the case of writing, on the other hand, its as though we as reader have [to] go to the text and do the work of extracting the meaning. And speech seems to give us more sense of contact with the author. (Peter Elbow, Everyone Can Write: Essays Toward a Hopeful Theory of Writing and Teaching. Oxford University Press, 2000) Multiple Voices The personality I am expressing in this written sentence is not the same as the one I orally express to my three-year-old who at this moment is bent on climbing onto my typewriter. For each of these two situations, I choose a different voice, a different mask, in order to accomplish what I want accomplished. (Walker Gibson, The Limits of Language. Hill and Wang, 1966) Just as you dress differently on different occasions, as a writer you assume different voices in different situations. If youre writing an essay about a personal experience, you may work hard to create a strong personal voice in your essay. . . . If youre writing a report or essay exam, you will adopt a more formal, public tone. Whatever the situation, the choice you make as you write and revise . . . will determine how readers interpret and respond to your presence. (Lisa Ede, Work in Progress: A Guide to Writing and Revising. St. Martins Press, 1989) Tone and Voice If voice is the writers personality that a reader hears in a text, then tone might be described as the writers attitude in a text. The tone of a text might be emotional (angry, enthusiastic, melancholy), measured (such as in an essay in which the author wants to seem reasonable on a controversial topic), or objective or neutral (as in a scientific report). . . . In writing, tone is created through word choice, sentence structure, imagery, and similar devices that convey to a reader the writers attitude. Voice, in writing, by contrast, is like the sound of your spoken voice: deep, high-pitched, nasal. It is the quality that makes your voice distinctly your own, no matter what tone you might take. In some ways, tone and voice overlap, but voice is a more fundamental characteristic of a writer, whereas tone changes upon the subject and the writers feelings about it. (Robert P. Yagelski,  Writing: Ten Core Concepts. Cengage, 2015) Grammar and Voice ​If, as we believe, grammar is linked to voice, students need to be thinking about grammar far earlier in the writing process. We cannot teach grammar in lasting ways if we teach it as a way to fix students writing, especially writing they view as already complete. Students need to construct knowledge of grammar by practicing it as part of what it means to write, particularly in how it helps create a voice that engages the reader on the page. (Mary Ehrenworth and Vicki Vinton, The Power of Grammar: Unconventional Approaches to the Conventions of Language. Heinemann, 2005) The Elusive Entity of Voice One of the most mysterious of writing’s immaterial properties is what people call voice. . . . Prose can show many virtues, including originality, without having a voice. It may avoid clichà ©, radiate conviction, be grammatically so clean that your grandmother could eat off it. But none of this has anything to do with this elusive entity the voice. There are probably all kinds of literary sins that prevent a piece of writing from having a voice, but there seems to be no guaranteed technique for creating one. Grammatical correctness doesn’t insure it. Calculated incorrectness doesn’t, either. Ingenuity, wit, sarcasm, euphony, frequent outbreaks of the first-person singular- any of these can enliven prose without giving it a voice. (Louis Menand, Bad Comma. The New Yorker, June 28, 2004)

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The Intolerable Acts (1774) in the American Revolution

The Intolerable Acts (1774) in the American Revolution The Intolerable Acts were passed in spring 1774, and helped cause the American Revolution (1775-1783). Background In the years after the French and Indian War, Parliament attempted to levy taxes, such as the Stamp Act and Townshend Acts, on the colonies to aid in covering the cost of maintaining the empire. On May 10, 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act with the goal of aiding the struggling British East India Company. Prior to the passage of the law, the company had been required to sell its tea through London where it was taxed and duties assessed. Under the new legislation, the company would be permitted to sell tea directly to the colonies without the additional cost. As a result, tea prices in America would be reduced, with only the Townshend tea duty assessed. During this period, the colonies, angered by the taxes levied by the Townshend Acts, had been systematically boycotting British goods and claiming taxation without representation. Aware that the Tea Act was an attempt by Parliament to break the boycott, groups such as the Sons of Liberty, spoke out against it. Across the colonies, British tea was boycotted and attempts were made to produce tea locally. In Boston, the situation climaxed in late November 1773, when three ships carrying East India Company tea arrived in the port. Rallying the populace, the members of the Sons of Liberty dressed as Native Americans and boarded the ships on the night of December 16. Carefully avoiding damaging other property, the raiders tossed 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor. A direct affront to British authority, the Boston Tea Party forced Parliament to take action against the colonies. In retribution for this affront to royal authority, the Prime Minister, Lord North, began passing a series of five laws, dubbed the Coercive or Intolerable Acts, the following spring to punish the Americans. The Boston Port Act Passed on March 30, 1774, the Boston Port Act was a direct action against the city for the previous Novembers tea party. The legislation dictated that the port of Boston was closed to all shipping until full restitution was made to the East India Company and the King for the lost tea and taxes. Also included in the act was the stipulation that the colonys seat of government should be moved to Salem and Marblehead made a port of entry. Loudly protesting, many Bostonians, including Loyalists, argued that the act punished the entire city rather than the few who were responsible for the tea party. As supplies in the city dwindled, other colonies began sending relief to the blockaded city. Massachusetts Government Act Enacted on May 20, 1774, the Massachusetts Government Act was designed to increase royal control over the colonys administration. Abrogating the colonys charter, the act stipulated that its executive council would no longer be democratically elected and its members would instead be appointed by the king. Also, many colonial offices that were previously elected officials would henceforth be appointed by the royal governor. Across the colony, only one town meeting was permitted a year unless approved by the governor. Following General Thomas Gages use of the act to dissolve the provincial assembly in October 1774, Patriots in the colony formed the Massachusetts Provincial Congress which effectively controlled all of Massachusetts outside of Boston. Administration of Justice Act Passed the same day as the previous act, the Administration of Justice Act stated that royal officials could request a change of venue to another colony or Great Britain if charged with criminal acts in fulfilling their duties. While the act allowed travel expenses to be paid to witnesses, few colonists could afford to leave work to testify at a trial. Many in the colonies felt it was unnecessary as British soldiers had received a fair trial after the Boston Massacre. Dubbed the Murder Act by some, it was felt that it allowed royal officials to act with impunity and then escape justice. Quartering Act A revision of the 1765 Quartering Act, which was largely ignored by colonial assemblies, the 1774 Quartering Act expanded the types of buildings in which soldiers could be billeted and removed the requirement that they be provided with provisions. Contrary to popular belief, it did not permit the housing of soldiers in private homes. Typically, soldiers were first to be placed in existing barracks and public houses, but thereafter could be housed in inns, victualing houses, empty building, barns, and other unoccupied structures. Quebec Act Though it did not have a direct effect on the thirteen colonies, the Quebec Act was considered part of the Intolerable Acts by the American colonists. Intended to ensure the loyalty of the kings Canadian subjects, the act greatly enlarged Quebecs borders and allowed the free practice of the Catholic faith. Among the land transferred to Quebec was much of the Ohio Country, which had been promised to several colonies through their charters and to which many had already laid claim. In addition to angering land speculators, others were fearful about the spread of Catholicism in American. Intolerable Acts - Colonial Reaction In passing the acts, Lord North had hoped to detach and isolate the radical element in Massachusetts from the rest of the colonies while also asserting the power of Parliament over the colonial assemblies. The harshness of the acts worked to prevent this outcome as many in the colonies rallied to Massachusetts’s aid. Seeing their charters and rights under threat, colonial leaders formed committees of correspondence to discuss the repercussions of the Intolerable Acts. These led to the convening of the First Continental Congress at Philadelphia on September 5. Meeting at Carpenters Hall, delegates debated various courses for bringing pressure against Parliament as well as whether they should draft a statement of rights and liberties for the colonies. Creating the Continental Association, the congress called for a boycott of all British goods. If the Intolerable Acts were not repealed within a year, the colonies agreed to halt exports to Britain as well as support Massachusetts if it was attacked. Rather than exact punishment, Norths legislation worked to pull the colonies together and pushed them down the road towards war.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Halewood Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Halewood - Essay Example Halewood must be cognizant of the fact that it is very difficult to introduce a new product in the market and this is even worsen if there are alternative product that has been in the market for a long time that will be posing a challenge. It thus needs several strategy measures to ensure that the expectedniche is occupied in the market, among other things that will affect their marketing strategy in this case includes; Competition from Alternative Products In designing their marketing and service delivery strategy, the company should look at the issue of alternative products in terms of prices, availability, and the customer’s loyalty associated with them. This is very important in coming up with a marketing strategy that will counter strong sense of establishment in the market from other products. Prices of the alternative products will play a significant role in affecting Halewood marketing strategy because for them to make a break through, they have to retail at a cost low er than those of the established product. The cost of the alternative products will thus be very critical for Halewood to make informed choice on how best they should sell their products in the market in order to have a competitive edge. The availability of the product is equally important for Halewood to evaluate the strategy that should be used to make the product have sufficient inroads in most of the prospective market zones. In most cases, one will find that products availability are skewed to one zone than others, with this realization, Halewood are able to have different strategies in the different areas based on the intensity of other products in the different areas. In an area with more competitive products, there will be intense marketing than those areas that do not experience business rivalry on the same product. Product’s Strength in the Market Halewood will have to consider their product’s strength that the competitive products are not giving, Like in the case of the new product being introduced, the company came up with this taste to provide a solution for those who want an alternative product to consume other than Alcohol or caffeine. This is the strength of the product the company has come up with that probably most business competitors are not providing; most of the probable competitors provide purely alcohol or soft drinks. In this case, Halewood will be providing an intermediary product that will cater for the needs of those who do not want alcohol and caffeine in the afternoon. In their marketing, this should be boldly captured so that the prospective customers can know the unique taste that is provided by the new product (Lawley, 2007, p.83). The fact that the new product is designed in a way to bring in a new taste in the market should be categorically captured in the marketing strategy so that the customers will develop the urge to have its taste and make choice out of it. Understanding Competition Introduction of every ne w product in the market meets an existing competition, to effectively compete with those companies that are already established or introduce customers to new products, a lot has to be done in relation to understanding strategies used by other companies. This will involves researching on the marketing strategies of the competitive companies so that a good understanding of their strengths and weaknesses are known. This will help Halewood to devise a marketing strategy that will counter those that are played by the competitors, it is important to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the competitors in deciding which option to consider (Lawley, 2007, p.88). Having known the weakness and the strengths of the competitor

Friday, October 18, 2019

Differences Between Institutionalism and Rational Choice Theory Essay

Differences Between Institutionalism and Rational Choice Theory - Essay Example The American political scientists James March and Mancur Olsen initiated 'The New institutionalism' in 1984 in reaction to behaviorism and the mounting power of rational choice theory which emphasizes on the manner in which institutions represent principles and relationships of authority (Hall and Taylor 1996; Lowndes 1996; Lowndes, 2001). New Institutionalism defines institutions themselves as an essential variable in political outcomes (March and Olsen 1984) and focuses on the comparative independence of political institutions. Institutions do not symbolize society or individual strategies, unlike the rational choice theory. Institutionalism merely offers sense to communications and supplies the background, within which these communications take place. The rational choice theory asserts that institutions are simply bestowed with powers by individuals themselves. The rational choice theory is essential in comprehending by first understanding the personal interactions. The rational choice theory involves a reasonable preference which is not the case in institutionalism. Normative or sociological institutionalism implies the codes of suitable conduct that permeate the individuals in the organizations. Community officials operate on the basis of their opinion of what they envision is the correct code of behavior and they tend to oppose alterations which are deviated from their traditional views of 'appropriate behavior' particularly when this is associated to the implementation of a precise location or organization.Individuals or actors within the organizations are tied by universal morals, which explicates not only their tendency to aggravate amends but also the capability for institutions to replicate themselves. Normative institutionalism consequently structures the institutions with regard to the belief systems of individuals or actors who are deemed as associates of an occupation, organization, position, instead of efficacy augmenting individuals.Its fundamental supposition is that individuals within organizations are conventional, apprehensive of transformations and unyielding in the protection of their wellbeing. In the Institutional approach, the tradition is recognized as the chief self-governing variable (Rose, Collier 1991). Rose (1991) debates powerfully that policy selections are restricted by historical choices. Present administration can not, therefore, disregard precedent assurances. In a parallel debate, Weaver states the 'automatic government' and fears the ability of governments to execute amends.According to the concept of path dependency in historical institutionalism, preliminary judgments are decisive since they bind in potential verdicts.Rational Choice theory endeavors to bind the methodological individualism and institutional design (Ostrom) by emphasizing on procedural individuality, rather than communal.

Compare the function of IGOS and INGOS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Compare the function of IGOS and INGOS - Essay Example However, in the modern culture, these organizations are playing an important role in the world politics by influencing the global security and peace through their global collaborative function and working for the social and economical development of the member states. These organizations perform their functions according to the rules and regulations of intergovernmentalism, which means that a complete harmony is required. Whereas, Non-Government Organizations (NGO) are developed by some private personnel for the welfare of the society, which can also be international in their scope. These organizations do not posses any sort of government accreditation and established merely on the basis of mutual agreements among different personnel to raise funds through donations and grants from different philanthropists and international humanitarian organizations. However, they are recognized by the UN and many other international organizations as important political and welfare institutions. Th ese organizations are termed as international organizations due to the scope of their functionality, whereas in the real sense these organizations are not purely international organizations because they are not developed to coordinate the functions and efforts of the members for their mutual gains. The following table shows a compression between the objectives and functions of these two organizations. We will also evaluate that which organization better serves the humanity and promote the human rights in the world.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Govenance,Reporting and Ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Govenance,Reporting and Ethics - Essay Example However, a company should not pay more than required for this case but the remunerations should commensurate with individual performance (Bebchuk & Roe, 1999). The committee for remuneration should also judge where to place their Company in relation to other companies. However, these comparisons should be made wisely such that remuneration levels correspond with performance improvement. According to the Combined Code address on accountability and auditing, the company's board should be able to show a balanced as well as an assessment that can be understood in order to determine the position and prospects of the company. This can simply be termed as financial reporting. The code provides that the directors in an annual report should explain their responsibility of Code Provisions The directors should explain in the annual report their responsibilities for account preparation and there should also be auditor's statements concerning their reporting responsibilities. The main roles and responsibilities of the committee for auditing include: It also recommends that, all directors including the non-executive directors should be re-elected at regular intervals by the shareholders. This contributes to continued improved and satisfactory performance. Th The code requires that a company should produce disclosure statements and also report on how they apply the principle of management and governance (La Porta et al. 2000). Companies should be free to explain the governance policies that they as well as any circumstances that have led them to employing a particular approach. The company has also to confirm that it adheres to the provisions of the Combined Code and if it does not, then it is liable to giving an explanation as to why it cannot comply. This is referred to as "comply or explain" approach and has been in existence for long whereby it is widely accepted by the investors as well as company boards. The people who are concerned with governance evaluation should do this with an aim of promoting partnership as well as trust in the company. They should consider company's nature of risks as well as the challenges that it faces. They should also consider the size as well as the complexity of the company. ISSUE 1. Non-executive directors and Independence. Non-executive directors play a very key role and are believed to be very effective in the building of good corporate governance structures. The chairman has the capability of holding meetings with non-executive directors even in the absence of executives. The non-executive directors also meet annually under the leadership of the senior independent director but in the absence of the chairman to give an appraisal on the performance of the chairman.The non-executive directors are usually provided with professional advice at the expense of the company whereby they consider it important to discharge

Personal Knowledge Management Journey Assignment

Personal Knowledge Management Journey - Assignment Example through experience or association (2) acquaintance with or understanding of a science, art, or technique (3) the fact or condition of being aware of something or, (4) the range of ones information or understanding the fact or condition of having information or of being learned†. Scholar Barry Allen (1999) clarifies, having knowledge â€Å"is to have the privilege of making a statement pass among others as known or true†¦speech acts are dialogical, intersubjective exchanges with reciprocal effects on many speakers. Knowledge has its object (what is known) and its â€Å"other,† the person whom it is offered and received as knowledge, passing over the other as â€Å"truth† (Allen, 1999, p. 71). So it seems that knowledge generation goes through a process. A person engages in certain habits of thinking when faced with a certain problem. Costa & Kallick (2007) define a problem as any stimulus, question, task, phenomenon or discrepancy for which an explanation is not known immediately. That means, a certain amount of knowledge should be on hand to help him out or else, such knowledge must be available to him soon so as to be able to solve his problem. Costa and Kallick term certain behaviors or dispositions for such problem-solving as â€Å"habits of mind†. They qualify that a habit of mind is having the appropriate disposition toward behaving intelligently when confronted with problems which do not have answers as of yet, at least for the person concerned. When a person draws on his own habits of mind, he gains results which are more powerful, of higher quality and greater significance that if he does not use such habits. In my personal journey seeking for knowledge, I do get to engage in certain habits of mind as I go through the four dimensions of knowledge management, namely: the analytical, information, social and learning dimensions. In each dimension, I shall share what I have learned from others about each as well as how I go through each dimension, from

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Govenance,Reporting and Ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Govenance,Reporting and Ethics - Essay Example However, a company should not pay more than required for this case but the remunerations should commensurate with individual performance (Bebchuk & Roe, 1999). The committee for remuneration should also judge where to place their Company in relation to other companies. However, these comparisons should be made wisely such that remuneration levels correspond with performance improvement. According to the Combined Code address on accountability and auditing, the company's board should be able to show a balanced as well as an assessment that can be understood in order to determine the position and prospects of the company. This can simply be termed as financial reporting. The code provides that the directors in an annual report should explain their responsibility of Code Provisions The directors should explain in the annual report their responsibilities for account preparation and there should also be auditor's statements concerning their reporting responsibilities. The main roles and responsibilities of the committee for auditing include: It also recommends that, all directors including the non-executive directors should be re-elected at regular intervals by the shareholders. This contributes to continued improved and satisfactory performance. Th The code requires that a company should produce disclosure statements and also report on how they apply the principle of management and governance (La Porta et al. 2000). Companies should be free to explain the governance policies that they as well as any circumstances that have led them to employing a particular approach. The company has also to confirm that it adheres to the provisions of the Combined Code and if it does not, then it is liable to giving an explanation as to why it cannot comply. This is referred to as "comply or explain" approach and has been in existence for long whereby it is widely accepted by the investors as well as company boards. The people who are concerned with governance evaluation should do this with an aim of promoting partnership as well as trust in the company. They should consider company's nature of risks as well as the challenges that it faces. They should also consider the size as well as the complexity of the company. ISSUE 1. Non-executive directors and Independence. Non-executive directors play a very key role and are believed to be very effective in the building of good corporate governance structures. The chairman has the capability of holding meetings with non-executive directors even in the absence of executives. The non-executive directors also meet annually under the leadership of the senior independent director but in the absence of the chairman to give an appraisal on the performance of the chairman.The non-executive directors are usually provided with professional advice at the expense of the company whereby they consider it important to discharge

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Law Of International Insurance contracts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Law Of International Insurance contracts - Essay Example The Convention recognized the inherent risks of the aviation industry, thus, it seek to protect the airline companies by putting limitations on its liabilities towards it passengers and cargo. To strike a balance between protecting the interest of the airline companies and protecting the welfare of the passengers, the framers of the Warsaw Convention 1929 instituted provisions that define the certain terms. Section 17 of the Warsaw convention specifically said that, â€Å"The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the death or wounding of a passenger or any other bodily injury suffered by a passenger, if the accident which caused the damage so sustained took place on board the aircraft or in the course of any of the operations of embarking or disembarking. â€Å" The definition of â€Å"accident† according to the Warsaw Convention has been the subject of many debates and arguments in and outside of the courts for several years. In settling arguments, the courts have defined the word â€Å"accident† in many decided cases both in the United States and the in the United Kingdom. To get a clearer picture of how the courts define the word â€Å"accident† and how this definition has affected the insurable interests of aircrafts and their passengers, let us take a closer look at the leading cases decided by the Courts. The definition of the word â€Å"accident† in the airline industry is the same in both the United States and the United Kingdom. Note that the Warsaw Convention was meant to establish a uniform liability of airline companies towards their passengers thus, the courts, in defining the word â€Å"accident† according to Article 17 of the convention, adopt a more or less interpretation. According to the provisions of the Warsaw Convention, it is not enough that the carrier failed to convince the court that it took all necessary

Kishwar Naheed Essay Example for Free

Kishwar Naheed Essay She conveys that women were unwanted and were not cared for. In particular female infants were seen as a financial burden to an Indian family as they were discriminated from working and were not allowed to have an education. Naheed emphasises that she felt as if she was in the family for no purpose. Male infants were seen as the family gaining prosperity, they were celebrated and it was a gift to be proud of. The opening of the stanza Brash with glass immediately tells the reader that this is a luxurious place or arrogant. The word Brash is ironic as it can mean white faced. The harsh vowel of the assonance helps the reader to suggest the poets anger. The simile and alliteration of the phrase flaring like a flag conveys the idea that the restaurant asserts itself, even in its name. The word flag suggests that the people who set up a flag, have conquered someone elses land. This highlights the idea of when the whites stole the land of South Africa. Flaring suggests that the whites are bragging to the masses (blacks) about their superior lifestyle and it conveys Afrikas anger as this links to the image of heat used earlier in stanza two anger of my eyes. The simile guard at the gatepost suggest that the restaurant is reserved exclusively for white people. The guards are threatening the masses (blacks. ) He explains that even though there is No sign displayed outside the whites only inn and Apartheid was supposed to be put to an end. The guard is replaced instead of the sign as they block the masses (blacks) from entering the haute cuisine. Therefore, Afrika gives a clear image to the reader that Apartheid still exists. In I am not that woman Kishawar Naheed attempts to redefine the man-woman relationship; and address the situation she faces in her everyday life of exploitation and oppression. It is illustrated in the words Now it is time for me to flower free. The alliteration gives the impression that she wants to fight back and does not want to live restricted anymore. The words Now and free shows when she wants to redefine the man-woman relationship. Moreover, she explains how she wants to live like. Naheed wants a life with no restrictions and for men and women to be treated equally. The message in the poem is that men and women are not always treated equally; and how there is still sexism and discrimination. In particular, women are not dominated by men and men are treated with prestige and power. The poem helps her express her thoughts and feelings. Afrikas words are ambiguous we know where we belong. This perhaps emphasises that the masses (blacks) know that they are discriminated from entering the inn as there is a guard at the gate post. The use of the pronoun we emphasises that he believes that his identity belongs with the masses (blacks.) The single rose on each table contrast with the working mans cafe. As a single rose symbolises high quality lifestyle or perfection. It could also mean the arrogant wealth that was amongst the mass poverty at the time. In the words My motherhood Naheed conveys that women were born to nurture and care. On the other hand, the men in her society have stolen this substantial and amazing gift from them. Instead women are forced to be voiceless, obedient and were unfairly treated as servants due to the male dominance. My loyalty suggests that her husband and her father took away her loyalty and treated her unfairly. Naheed is aware that she has the right to achieve her loyalty again. In the fifth stanza the poet uses the words bunny chows to convey the masses (blacks) poor lifestyle in the working mans cafe. Bunny chows was cheap at the time and a common local snack of a poor mans hamburger; it is a stark contrast with haute cuisine. In the restaurant there are plastic tables top, this suggests the poor lifestyle the masses had. The plastic tables top suggests that there is no tablecloth and they felt incomplete, empty and it must have been uncomfortable to eat on. Wipe your fingers on your jeans gives the impression that there is nowhere to wash ones hands after eating or a tissue to wipe hands. Afrika uses direct imagery to show the life of the masses (blacks. ) Kishwar suggests that women do not have self respect. This is evident in The woman on the poster half naked. Naheed is commenting on how men view women as objects or for sexual pleasure. She wants this view to change. The tone No, no I am not that woman! emphasises that Naheed is not a woman who is obedient, subservient and does not want to avoid any arguments or disagreements with anything the men verbalize. The repetition of no shows that she is certain on her actions and strongly disagrees with how many women in the Asian culture are living. Afrika uses the words boy again to show that the appearance of District six brings back memories of his childhood when the Apartheid system existed. He does not feel independent as he feels like a boy and believes he is following the whites like how a child is with their parents. Hands burn emphasises his anger against the system and his urge to destroy the symbol of segregation. Afrika repeats the title Nothings changed at the ending of the poem. He conveys that even though Apartheid has been Abolished, the masses (blacks) are still treated inferior. The final stanza shows his anger and disappointment of the economic division between the whites and the masses (blacks) and conveys that the society has not changed at all. The layout of Nothings changed is set out in eight short lines in each of the six stanzas. The layout creates a sense of control as he is clear on what he is feeling and no sudden rage is introduced at any point in the poem. His anger increases gradually within each line. The poet makes his argument straight forward by emphasising his feelings in a calm manner. In the first stanza the use of imagery makes the reader feel as if they are in the poets shoes. This makes it clear and easy to imagine how life was like for Tatumkhulu Afrika. This is illustrated in the words Small round hard stones click under my heels. It makes it easy to imagine the masses (blacks) unpleasant and unfortunate lifestyle. The structure of I am not that woman is informal. The layout of the stanzas do not fit in a regular pattern and none of the words rhyme with each other. The free flowing structure shows how determined Naheed is about her argument. This conveys that nothing can change the way she is and nothing will hold her back. Even by the simple rules of poetry. It emphasises how infatuated she is towards emancipation. Furthermore, she is protesting about women having access to equal opportunities and rights as men; and women should not be treated as if they are worthless or disempowered. It is seen in the words my loyalty. The tones between Nothings changed and I am not that woman are very different. Kishwar Naheeds tone in I am not that woman is very calm, but firm. Her steady tone conveys that she has control over what is being said by repeatedly claiming I not that woman. Tatumkhulu Afrikas tone contrasts compared to Naheeds. In Nothings changed the poet seems to be increasing his rage within each line as he sees more things that have not changed even though Apartheid was abolished. Moreover, he is feeling angry because he had not been to District six for many years. In-conclusion, I believe that Kishwar Naheed in I am not that woman argument is stronger as the poem relates more to her lifestyle, cultural beliefs and traditional values about what she has experienced as a woman herself. Naheed clearly explains that wants equality between men and women. Moreover, she does not want to live a typical lifestyle of an asian; and leaves the reader in hope that there is a chance of change. However I believe that Tatumkhulu Afrika argument in Nothings changed. Is not as strong as Naheeds as he leaves the reader feeling helpless and has not attempted to change his lifestyle as much as Naheed has in nothings changed. Afrika has allowed the whites to treat the masses (blacks) unfairly; because he was not as determined or eager as Naheed. He mainly just agreed how nothings changed however, Naheed believes that no one can stop or change her views. This is why I strongly believe Naheedss argument is more effective. I believe that Naheeds argument will become more powerful if the majority of women did not accept the cultural beliefs of a submissive Asian housewife and they were all determined to fight for equality. By women taking action as a group by giving their views and speaking; the men may realise that women are treated unfairly, and their lifestyle may change once they have taken action.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Forming Strategic Alliances Business Essay

Forming Strategic Alliances Business Essay During the globalization, managers are confronted with a rapid changing competitive landscape. In order to overcome this difficulty, firms try to make alliances. Making strategic alliances is the relevant choice for managers to search for ways for how to compete effectively and create the successful future. Recently, collaboration between companies became fashionable .Strategic alliances is a cooperative agreements between companies. It involves all kinds of companies such as large, medium and small. In strategic alliances, partner companies join forces for common goals without losing their strategic autonomy. Representation of an alliance: Goals and interests Goals and interests specific to A specific to B Source: Dussauge and Bern (1999), Cooperative Strategy, ch.1, p. 3 The Advantages of Strategic Alliances There are several advantages of forming alliances: It may facilitate entry into a foreign market Many firms who want to enter foreign market, they need local partner who will understand business conditions and who has good relations with local government and organizations. For example, in 2004 Warner Brothers entered into a joint venture with two Chinese partners to produce and distribute films in China. Through the partnership with local firms, Warner Brothers succeeded to distribute any films it produces It allows firms to share cost and risks for developing new products or process For example, an alliance between Boeing and Mitsubishi share 8billion U.S Dollar among the partners for building a new aircraft such as 7E7. It stimulates to develop skills and assets which are difficult to do alone For example, in 2003 Microsoft and Toshiba established an alliance for developing a new microprocessor for entertainment for automobiles. Microsoft brought its software engineering skills and Toshiba its hardware engineering skills. It helps companies to establish technological standards For example, in 1999 Palm Computer formed an alliance with Sony under which Sony agreed to license and use Palms operating system in Sony PDAs. The motivation was to establish Palms operating system as the industry standard for PDAs against Windows-based operating system from Microsoft. The Disadvantages of Strategic Alliances Establishing alliances can be risky. Unless a firm is careful, it can give away more than it receives. It means that, if the partner reckless of managing its know-how, it can be leaked to other partner. Main drivers of formation of alliances: The recent and rapid growth in the number of strategic alliances can be explained by various changes in the international business environment. Globalization of trade and acceleration of technological progress seem to be major driving forces that have led firms to enter into significant numbers of cooperative agreements. Strategic Alliance drivers: Globalization Technical changeDisenchantment with M A Source: Tayeb, M. H. (2001), International Business Partnership, ch.2, p.35. Globalization The Globalization is the process which includes the objectives relating to the need to establish a large global presence, to gain knowledge and size, ensure competitive defence and deal with regulatory and political barriers to new market entry. One of the main drivers of globalization is the fact that customer needs and preferences throughout the world are rapidly converging. This makes firms to produce so-called global products suited to all consumers, irrespective of their nationality. International alliances can offer an effective way to globalize more rapidly and therefore enhance a companys competitiveness. While making international acquisitions is both costly and risky; setting up a network of wholly foreign subsidiaries is long, expensive and hazardous; licensing gives little control. Global alliances can allow the partner companies to pool resources produce global product and distribute it worldwide: British Telecom, MCI and ATT for World Partners; Alliance of Sambuca and Nemiroff; Alliance of Philips and Whirlpool. Technical Change: The cost and complexity of new technology are increasing extremely rapidly. Between 1970 and 1990, RD expenditures rose three times as fast as spending on fixed assets (Collins and Doorley, 1991). With the increase in the diversity and complexity of technology know-how, the range of possible innovations based on this expertise is growing wider. While the range of possibilities offered by new research has been increasing tremendously, individual RD programs are growing ever more expensive and the chance of achieving technically successful and commercially profitable results have become more and more uncertain. This is why cooperation is viewed as unavoidable in many high-tech industries: by dividing up the RD work between the partner firms, it enables them to share costs, pool their expertise, and explore a greater number of avenues (Dussauge, Hart and Ramanantsoa, 1992). For example: The Peugeot/Renault JV, Alliance of PRV V6 Engine Disenchantment with MA The disenchantment that has followed many mergers and acquisitions seems to be one of the reasons behind the recent development of strategic alliances. Alliances make it possible to avoid the culture and organizational shock coming in the wake of a merger by proceeding step by step, and by gradually adapting the content and structure of the agreement. Formation of Strategic Alliances Formation process: Source: Schaan, J (2007), Cases in Alliance Management, ch. 1, p. 7 Strategy development The rationale for a strategic alliance needs to be firmly in a clear strategic understanding of a companys current capabilities and those it will need to be successful in the future. First of all, managers need to establish the strategic goals of their companys and then evaluate their resources and capabilities to see if they are capable of executing on their own. The process starts by developing a realistic appraisal of what resources are required to meet a companys long-term strategic objectives. The objectives are for increasing competitive advantage. The manager must state that what capabilities the firm has and searching for. With this undertaking, managers begin to establish their criteria for rating partnership opportunities if this is an option they choose. Before making the mind to go for the alliance, the potential costs involved need to be considered such as technology transfer, coordination and management costs, which is high indeed. (Tayeb, H. M 2001). Managers need to take into account of, if the firm has an experience on building alliance. If this is first alliance, a company should look carefully at its internal policies and practices and evaluate to what degree they will help or hinder an alliance. For example, if a company has difficulties on managing its internal communication, then there will be strain on the alliance relationship. It is best to modify internal practices as necessary before introducing a third party. The process of strategy development is as following: Strategy Development: Source: Schaan, J (2007), Cases in Alliance Management, ch. 1, p. 7 Selecting the right partner It should come as no surprise that choosing the right partner is a major determinant of how successful an alliance will ultimately be. Inexperienced companies should not hurry up to do a deal-choosing partner. Poor partner selection ranks high among the reasons for alliance failure. It invariably takes longer than anticipated to find the right partner. Managers should spend time and resources to thoroughly analyze the potential opportunity. Depending on the scope and complexity of the alliance, it takes from several months to a couple of years to find the right partner. Small companies looking for alliance partners are often tempted to look for shortcuts as they find themselves facing time and financial pressures. They may succumb to the temptation to partner with any company, whether or not it meets their strategic needs. This is the mistake that companies make, because a partner must fit a companys strategic needs. Small companies mostly keen on forming partnership with large companies. The reputation and image of the large company can often cause the small firm to ignore its own strategic objectives. After the strategic objectives were defined, managers should decide how many partners to approach. The search process starts by formalizing partner profile screening criteria, developing a list of prospects, ranking the list against the criteria and then focusing on a manageable number of the best prospects. Complementary assets and capabilities is the core characteristic of partners for evaluation the strategic fit. Having identical strategic assets is not a good basis for a partnership because the possibility of competitive conflict can be high over the long term. It is necessary to evaluate partners according to their strategic, cultural and operational fit. Concerning to strategic fit, managers should take into the balance of need between the partners. If the needs of other partner are to get more profit, then this will not be long-term alliances. The nature and durability of the strategic fit is also a critical consideration. It is important that the long-term objectives of the partner are not in conflict and that the intended benefits can be sustained. During analyzing strategic fit, firms need to choose a partner who has a potential strategic network. In high-tech industries, most of the firms have cooperative network with each other. As it said above, building an alliance with large firms is risky. Companies should choose a partner who is almost the same size. Research indicates that choosing substantial size of partner can decrease successful collaborative activity. It can lead Merger and Acquisition. Cultural fit is core of choosing partner. It can affect business logic, competitive behaviour, time orientation, and decision making. It directly impacts the ability of partners to work together to meet their common objectives. Research of KPMG shows that, the reason of 70 % of strategic alliances failure is cultural contradiction among the partners. Culture of companies has profound effect on organizations operational practices such as management and organizational structure, decision-making practices and employment policies. Negotiation The major part of long-term collaboration is established at the negotiation stage. Negotiation should be as first and foremost as a means of building the linkages that will support effective collaboration between the partner companies. The negotiation process is perfect way for developing some unique insights into how the other party does business. In negotiation process, several areas require particular attention such as: collecting negotiation team, negotiation preparations, the process of negotiation itself and forming a negotiation agreement. Negotiation can be stressful and managers need to be sure that his team members can have contribution. Besides, legal and tax professionals have a very important role to play in putting a partnership together, but during the negotiation it is best to avoid them to attend the process. Well preparation can make the negotiation process easy and smooth. Advanced preparation should also help assess bargaining power, understand the concessions to be made and forecast issues that might arise. Good negotiations are characterized by honesty and an open flow of information between the partners. The agreement should be well written and set out the purpose, term, duration, warranties, obligations. Implementation Making the right decision about strategy, partner and structure is only the beginning. The real work starts when companies implement their alliance. While the chosen structure and scope of an alliance will significantly influence the kind of implementation required, the material covered in this section presents principles for creating winning conditions that are applicable to all. The main problems of forming strategic alliances There are different problems of forming strategic alliances. As it is obvious that strategic alliances in most cases are managed by two or more parents makes them inherently risky. The problems in forming alliances stem from one cause: there is more than one parent. The owners of parent firms are powerful. They can and will disagree on just about nothing (Killing, 1982). Such as Queensland Minerals alliance, owners of both parts parent companies were disagree. Amcon Corporation wanted to expand to Queensland, but the CEO of Victoria Heavy Industries did not want to. As a result Amcon renegotiated the alliance agreement. Organizational culture, a companys ways of doing things, refers to basic assumptions and beliefs that are share by members of an organization. These operate unconsciously and define an organizations view and its environment. Organizational culture can cause problems where companies with distinctive cultures merge or form a strategic alliance. Employees from the parent firms tend to use their home-company culture. In this connection, Datta and Rasheed (1993) mentioned that, a lack of cultural sensitivity can easily lead to misunderstandings in strategic alliances. Main Problems of Forming Strategic Alliances Unsuccessful rate of alliances are high. The success of an alliance seems to be a function of three main factors: Partner selection Alliance structure Managing alliances

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Reopening Old Wounds :: Personal Narrative, Autobiographical Essay

Reopening Old Wounds Professor’s Comment: Bob’s essay is an intensely personal, admirably honest introspective examination of his repressed emotions concerning his parents divorce. I would cry, but that would be a pointless waste of energy. It’s one of those things that I envied my mother. In a flash she could go from the stoic lady of the house to a sobbing goose. I never understood how. I’d go from astonishment to disgust to envy. I take more after my old man. I’ve never seen him shed a single tear. Then again I’ve never really seen him smile either. I grin a lot. I was supposed to be in my home town right now, tossing back cold ones and laughing with my best and oldest friends. My schedule wouldn’t permit it, however. It’s probably for the best. It’s never a good idea to hit one’s home town in a poor mood. I’d probably just end up hanging around the main drag, pissed off my ass and yelling at cruisers. Chances are I would end up in jail, or calling an old girlfriend and reopening old wounds that should have healed years ago. I wonder which of those two prospects is worse. Instead of expressing my emotions as I should, I have withdrawn them and locked them away deep inside me. Rather than call a friend and talk, or go walking, or listen to records, or break things, I am in front of the computer, writing. It is a safe form of expression; if this gets too revealing or too corny, I can always delete the file, or password protect it, restricting access to me alone. So the question on my mind lately has been why. What happened and when that has left me so numb to my feelings? I’ve tried countless times to trace it back and pin it down to an event, to that key moment when I started down the path of self-imposed isolation. Of course, Freud would insist I failed the oral stage, the stage where trust and security develop. It occurs usually around the second year of life, when parents wean their child. If all goes well—according to Freud—the child tastes for the first time independence from his or her mother and begins to explore that independence.

Friday, October 11, 2019

I Want to be an Art Teacher :: Teaching Educacion Admissions

I Want to be an Art Teacher Have you ever been to a point in your life where there were to many decisions and not enough time? This is what happened to me in my senior year of high school. Throughout my teen years, I never discussed college with my family or did they with me. College for some reason was not on my agenda. Then I realized that I wanted to go to further my education. The reason I chose to go to college was that I am an artist, and felt that I needed to learn more about art techniques. I didn’t want to loose my talent, and I realized how much I enjoyed being in class. I had the privilege of being a student of some wonderful teachers at the high school I attended, and they influenced my decision to becoming an art teacher. Teaching is a challenging profession, but also very rewarding. I had the opportunity to do an art project with local kids of Monroe County over the summer. That experience helped me a great deal to see a glimpse of my future. During the four-week program the kids worked and learned about all forms of art. The teaching experience gave me pleasure on departing some knowledge and interest to the children that were there. That feeling of accomplishment for myself and seeing it in the faces of the children encourages me to proceed in my goals on becoming an art teacher. My goals as a teacher will be managing my classroom in an eclectic way of combining philosophies. Differing seating arrangements in art classes are limited, therefore are materials need to be shared among the students. In my class, there will be at least four chairs to each table so that material can be dispersed equally. On the bulletin boards I will display work of past and present students to show their accomplishments in my class. The materials needed is wide range, they include paints, color pencils, drawing pencils, markers, differing sizes of paper, scissors, and much more. Projects will be fun and pertaining to the Arts.

Friabililty Test of Mefenamic Acid Tablets

One of the testing criteria of mechanical strength of tablets tablet friability testing. Tablets must be able to withstand mechanical stresses during their manufacturing, distribution and handling by the end-user. During the process of coating, transportation, packing and processing tablet, tablet will lose some weight. Because of that, the friability test is performed in the pharmaceutical industry to test the tendency of a tablet breaking into smaller pieces during transit.It includes repeatedly dropping a sample of tablets over a fixed time by using friability tester and then checking whether any tablets are broken, and calculate the percentage of loss weight of tablets. A good compressed tablet should not loss more than 1% of its weight. Based on this experiment, after the operation ended, the weight loss of tablets is 0. 0395g which is equivalent to 0. 68% loss from its weight. This means, those tablets are good quality and strong tablets which then can endure the stresses.There are maybe some error during handling the experiment that can lead to incorrect results. After operation ended, the tablets are not fully cleaned from dust which is affect the result. When finished, the samples have to be de-dusted first before weigh again. CONCLUSION The percentage loss of weight of samples is 0. 68%. The samples are good quality tablets because the percentage loss of weight are not more than 1%. 1. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Friability 2. http://www. anabiotec. com/testing/detail/hardness-friability-disintegration

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Light in the shadow of jihad: the struggle for truth

IntroductionThe world needs to learn to understand each other’s faith and belief and respect it in every way.  Following the September eleventh tragedy, Christians face the dilemma of comprehending the truths of the tragedy and responding to it in a Christian way. That dilemma is answered through deep study and understanding Islam guided by the bible and prophesies contained in it. America and the world must realize that God fulfills his purpose frequently through disasters.With the tragedy, a lot of essential questions arose: Is terrorism the true focus of Islam? Is god absent in such disasters?As America mourned, some celebrated. It is true that some people may think that they are terrorists but some may think they are freedom fighters. The belief that actions can be justified politically has been going on for years. Politicization of morality has given an opportunity to justify actions politically and one it is done, it could be morally accepted as well (Lyon). Other demo cratic nations believe that the individual is the arbiter of right and wrong. But some like Bin Laden thinks differently.Faith is the basis of morality but at the same time it is the root of relativism in every means to establish one religion. This makes their inconsistencies evident. If moral agnosticism is the absolute of relativism, how come relativism tells us that no one can discern right from wrong?  On the other hand, the attackers have spent their last hours with prostitutes in night clubs. If their absolute is Islam, why spend their last night to satisfy their sexual needs instead of their spiritual needs?Zacharias’ BookRavi suggested in his book, Light in the Shadow of Jihad: The Struggle for Truth, five major questions that prevail in people’s mind after the September 11 Bombing. These questions are: Did the terrorists’ action portray a true Islam belief? What can state and church do in shaping the outlook of people on religion and how does it affec t the culture of the nation?Did the incident illustrate an Islamic tradition or such only undermine the religion of Islam? Were there any known predictions that such phenomenon would actually occur? What is the implication of such incident to the world and to the Future?  Moreover, He implicitly asked how God views the incident (Zacharias). Was God in favor of what happened? Why did He allow such violence take place? These were few of the questions directed to question the inclination God towards the 9/11 Bombing.Osama Bin Laden; A Protagonist or an Antagonist?Discernment begins with intuition. But as everybody knows, may often be wrong. Like for instance, Osama Bin Laden’s intuition has failed him (Zacharias). After 9/11, he deliberately complained about the bloodshed in Afghanistan. The bloodshed has suddenly become too reprehensible for Bin Laden. Intuition is simply not enough bases for discernment. Therefore, reasoning must come to place. But how do we move from intuit ion to reasoning? Relativist has said that reason could not move us to morality and that people are not capable of discerning right from wrong simply because right or wrong does not exist. Morality derived from intuition then become in conflict with morality derived from reasoning (Zacharias).As these conflicts arise, a need to go back to the foundation of morality is in place. The society merely recognizes that need. It is urgent and must be taken into consideration.Bin Laden, has his own way of looking at and discerning of the Islamic belief and tradition. Likewise, he has his own way of interpreting the codes of conduct or the morality included and written in the Quran. If his decision failed him, then logically, somehow his knowledge and interpretation of the Quran may be different from the original message of it.Muslim, Islam, Allah and the 9/11 BombingSeptember 11 terrorists thought or believed that their action is Allah’s will (Zacharias). While other Muslims think it is corrupted Islam. If such difference of belief exists among Muslims, what does other people from other beliefs to believe?Is terrorism a fruit of an Islamic worldview or a fruit of socio economic situation? People then must examine Islam to answer this urgent question. As discussed in the book, Islam is a religion which originated from Muhammed. It was through military invasion that Islam was spread out. After the death of Muhammed without a heir or successor, Islam movement was divided (Zacharias).In this time of division, some readings of Quran were destroyed. Thus, this incident becomes a controversy among critics for they think that textual tampering took place. Four sources of Quran accounts and history after the incident emerged- the Hadith, the Sunna, the Sira, and the Tafsir (Zacharias). But different sects of Islam have different levels of importance to these sources. This is an evidence why Muslims, most of the time, are not unanimated in terms of opinion, actions or met hods within their religion today. In this situation, Muslims rely on abrogation. But in this method, another problem arises. Which Quran readings abrogate other Quran readings? Differences among Muslims arise even more. Some Muslims persecute Christians to the point of killing them. There have been several reports about it. Like 9/11 tragedy is persecution to Christians (Muhammad). It is extreme and unfair.Educators has attempted to have an in-depth study of Islam but has met resistance with Muslim leaders. There is a chance that they are trying to manipulate the minds of other Muslims. What could be derived from Islamic history?There exists a major confusion among Muslims about their religion. This confusion is primarily caused by the division that is still evident today. From this as well, we can safely say that not all Muslims agree to violence (Zacharias). Organizing and restudying of Islam is urgently needed by Muslims.Christianity and the War of the Religious FaithsWhat about in Christianity? Is it not in any way predicted or prophesied by the bible? Throughout history, the prophesies in the bible has come to pass. As for example, in the book of Daniel about Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar had a problem about a statue which has four different parts.   It was a dream that Daniel had to interpret. Daniel explained to Nebuchadnezzar that it concerns kingdoms (Muhammad). The first kingdom would overcome the kingdom before them until it reach the fourth. These came to pass as prophesied. Jesus conquered human history without any political agenda. According to theologians, God is there but his presence is not obvious. This is called â€Å"the hiddenness of God†   (Muhammad). Atheist, on the other hand, thinks that if God would manifest himself, they would believe he exists. Other Christians sometimes wish so too.As Muslims persecute Christians, Christians persecute Muslims as well (Muhammad). After 9/11, Muslims faced everyday the discrimination against the m. Every Muslim is perceived to be a terrorist (Lyon). What does that say about Christianity? What is the difference between Muslims and Christians with this king of discrimination?This desire to see God tells more about us than about God. We turn to God when we have no one or nowhere to turn to and questions him when are needs are not met. This happens because of our tendency to rely on our intellect and the continuous nurturing of our minds with knowledge. Deep inside each of us yearns for rational evidence.  With Christians, faith varies but same beliefs are evident. A true relationship with God is when we begin to relate to him in both our ups and downs. God has a purpose. He intends to have us trust him and submit our lives to him in the midst of tragedy.Religion and the FutureThe world is suffering from lack of critical minds in relation to worldviews (Lyon). We are corrupted with so much information, too many voices. But it will never be enough for people top just listen to them and absorb everything. It is important for people to filter it before accepting it as true.The world should put to use faith as a basis of morality. Intuition and Reasoning is not enough. We should put to use the basis of religion as the solid ground of morality in our society. Religion may vary but it is sure the most solid, even if it may be inconsistent, foundation for morality.Respect for other culture and religion must be evident in every individual for the betterment of humanity. We may live in a democratic society but still discrimination is still evident. We must realize and accept that our religion or faith varies. Respect comes from understanding and learning each others cultures. Learning from the experience and moving on from it is in need. It is a challenge for everyone to understand each other. It is time for us to move on from the tragedy. It is time to move on from the corrupted and discriminating society that we are today. Let us move on and be better.Works Ci ted:Lyon, David. Surveillance after September 11 . Blackwell Publishing Limited , 2003.Muhammad, Elijah. Christianity Versus Islam. Secretarius Memps Publications , 1997.Zacharias, Ravi. Light in the Shadow of Jihad: The Struggle for Truth . Multnomah , 2002.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Leading, managing and developing people Outline Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Leading, managing and developing people - Outline Example 318). Contracted workers will not access HR training and development. They also lose their benefits such as the medical insurance packages. Considering the negative change in treatment, contracted workers of Tiger Cars will cease from doing extra work that they could have done if they could be working on a permanent basis. Psychological contract provides an explanation for the eminent decrease in the output if the company implements its employment strategy. In the long-term the expansion plan may not work well due to issues of HR that may arise. The HR is likely to experience inflated costs of remuneration, in the long run, when they lay-off workers (LIU, 2009 p. 30). The HR department will have to hire consultants at high rates to fill the gaps of knowledge left by staff reductions. The HR will ignore the cost of cutting staff. However, with the expansion of the company the HR will face the challenge of making replacement to the lost comprehension of the firm, its processes and customers (Mazur, 2012 p. 1). It will lead to revenue loss and reduced productivity. The contracted former employees will also undertake the contracted work only without offering extra skill (Pesqueux, 2012 p. 1). Tiger Car LTD must consider implementing strategies that boost the commitment, attitudes, and their relationship with the contracted employers (Collins, Cartwright and Hislop, 2012 p. 211). Improving work conditions and implementing some exchange model between the contracted workers and the organization can boost the employee’s commitment. In addition, the provision of training, improved supervision, and the provision of co-worker support can ensure that the output of the contracted workers is boosted significantly (Jafri, 2014 p. 168). Sadiq, S. (2014). Relationship between Psychological Contract Violation, Supervisory Support, Psychological Contract Breach and Organizational Citizenship Behavior.  IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 16(3),

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

About marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

About marketing - Essay Example These strategies were part of â€Å"The way forward† an initiative that the CEO adopted to make the company profitable. Ford Company recognized that each of its market segments has unique needs. In this regard, the company introduced new and stronger brands such new Fusion auto. In order to make the new brand attain stronger customer awareness, the company emulated Fusion studio, a promotional campaign that was focused at female customers who highly valued the brand. During the promotion, women were offered free beauty services, music as well as fitness training (Magee and Ford 47). Another strong brand that Ford introduced in the market was the Ford Fiesta. Even though the company brands are focused at meeting the needs of various market segments, Ford Fiesta is a unique model that is accepted in all the market segments. The shift from luxury market in Europe to an emerging market in Asia is another tactic that Ford has adopted to excel in the global market. This has resulted to high demand for Ford models in China and Asia leading to expansion of operations in the two countries. In addition to the introduction of electric vehicles, Ford has continued to emulate effective pricing techniques for its products making it to offer stiff competition to its main rival, Toyota Motor Corporation. Trek Bicycle adopts various market segmentation variables to retain the loyalty of its customers. One of the major variables is lifestyle and behavior. The company realizes that consumers who like to ride in city streets behave differently from those who value mountain riding. In the same way, while some of its customers like a smooth ride, others prefer to experience rough terrains while riding. In this regard, the company focuses at retaining its city riders by selling to them electric motors and pedal-power bikes. Similarly, Trek offers full-suspension model to consumers who value comfort while those who like to feel the terrain are offered with hard-tails. Gender

Monday, October 7, 2019

Writing profile on foster parent Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Writing profile on foster parent - Essay Example In the statistics provided by the Children Uniting Nations, citing the source of information from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS), it was disclosed that â€Å"more than 463,000 children live in foster care. In California, which has the largest foster care population than any other state, the number of foster youth has tripled in the last 20 years† (par. 1). Locating competent and highly qualified foster parents who could genuinely meet and support varied needs of children in need is therefore challenging. As one tried to locate potential foster parents, it was convenient to go directly to one of the established foster homes in Southern California and interview professional members of the organization’s team with regards to parents who signified intentions to become foster or adoptive parents. The Southern California Foster Family and Adoption Agency (SCFFAA) has been serving the needs of homeless children since 1994. It was deemed com mitted to â€Å"helping abused, abandoned and neglected children find secure, stable and nurturing homes. The agency provides for the well-being of children in its care and helps them become independent and successful adults† (Southern California Foster Family and Adoption Agency 1).

Sunday, October 6, 2019

How did democratization impact upon foreign policy of Brazil Essay

How did democratization impact upon foreign policy of Brazil - Essay Example The Geography and Demographics of Brazil Brazil has always had a unique sense of its identity as a continental country. Because of its vast land area and its sizable population it is, like the United States, Russia, China and India, bound to perform an important role in the international community. A country this size, dominating the greater part of South America, is bound to exert economic and political influence in the region and the world. It has, after all, the world’s eighth largest economy and fifth-largest land territory in the world (Da Cruz, 2005, p. 115). For instance, the magnitude of its people’s progress – 24 million Brazilians elevated from poverty, and 31 million more joining the middle class – is bound to create a sizeable ripple in the world economy (Vincent, 2010). The problems and challenges facing Brazil, and the manner in which she resolves them, will tend to exert an impact upon other states because of the country’s sheer size (Lafer, 2000, p. 208). The following figure shows a map of Brazil and its smaller neighboring states. Map of Brazil Source: Aside from its geography and demographics, Brazil’s uniqueness lies in its remarkable history. ... Brazil’s international identity places it at an advantage; although a former colony, it was distanced from international tensions that had occupied other nations in their search for a unique national identity. Brazil’s post-colonial history Brazil gained independence from the colonizers in 1822, and after that it gained freedom from monarchical rule in 1889 through a military overthrow. Between these years, a legitimate monarchy gave way to a well-established oligarchic republic where power was wielded by industrialists, coffee growers, and cattle ranchers (Lafer, 2000; Maitra, 2007). From 1889 to 1930, the country was run as a constitutional republic (i.e., the â€Å"First Republic†) with its old provinces granted autonomy as states, and collectively governed under the formal name, â€Å"The United States of Brazil.† In 1930, the Brazilian Revolution marked the end of the old republic and installed Getulio Dornelles Vargas in power. For this reason, 1930 to 1945 is known as the Vargas Era. While the early years had the benefit of a democratically eleted legislature, the years 1937 to 1945 saw Vargas transform into an authoritarian ruler who had abolished the former Constitution in a coup d’etat, shut down Congress, and assumed dictatorial powers. In 1945 Vargas was deposed, and the country redemocratized (Levine, 2003, p. 97). The subsequent period saw a populist regime followed by unsuccessful economic programs, for which reason the military intervened in 1964 in a revolutionary coup which again, as before, ended in dictatorship by 1985 (Levine, 2003). By 1985, democracy was again established, giving way to the first directly elected president (after the military regime) in 1989, in

Saturday, October 5, 2019

Viruses Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Viruses - Research Paper Example There are millions of types of viruses present in the world. A few thousands have been explained and studied in detail. Viruses can survive in severe and extreme conditions of temperature, pressure and atmosphere and hence cannot be easily destroyed or eliminated from the environment. Viruses can be found in almost all environments on earth. Isolated viruses are not living organisms because they cannot reproduce, grow or multiply unless they are present in a human or animal cell. The virus attacks the human, animal or plant cell, takes over the controlling and mechanism of the cell and starts producing products that are harmful for the body. The infected cell will now produce harmful products instead of its usual products (Mandal 41-76). Viruses are of various shapes but the basic structure of a virus always is composed of three parts. The nucleic acid is the main part of a virus and it is either a DNA or RNA. It is responsible for giving a virus its unique characteristics and helps to reproduce. The nucleic acid is protected by covering made from protein which is called the capsid; its purpose is to protect the nucleic acid from any sort of harm. The lipid membrane is a layer which is present over the capsid and is meant for protection. However this layer is not necessarily present in all viruses. Viruses can be transferred from organism to organism in different ways. Either the various can enter the body through direct contact with the organism contaminated with the virus. Some flying insects can carry the virus and transfer that virus to other organisms. Insect bites can also lead to a transfer of virus from one body to another. Contaminated food and water can also lead to the transfer of viruses. Viruses are responsible for a number of diseases like flu, cough, fever, measles, polio, hepatitis, yellow fever, small pox, Human immunodeficiency virus, rabies, influenza, diarrhea, etc. Among these diseases some are easily curable through regular medications and precautions but some of them are extremely difficult to take care of; the treatment is usually very expensive and besides the cost it is usually not sure that the medications will prove beneficial or not. Some of the diseases caused by viruses even do not have a cure and they ultimately lead to the death of the suffering person. Viruses can also cause certain types of cancer. For some of the diseases caused by viruses of which a proper cure is not present, the people are advised to take particular vaccines in order to keep themselves protected from the viral attack. By the use of vaccines the human body builds up the immune system to fight against any such viral attack and in this way the virus fails to attack the human cell and thus the human remains protected from those diseases which have no proper cure and are considered as life threatening diseases. The vaccines help develop antibodies in the human so that whenever such viruses are encountered by the human cells they can devel op antibodies to fight away the virus. In the earlier times when there were no vaccines many people used to die because of these incurable diseases but with the development of vaccines death rates have considerably reduced due to these diseases. The humans during the starting years of their lives are made to take vaccines against a number of viral diseases that are practically incurable in order to protect

Friday, October 4, 2019

Ethics of Human Cloning Essay Example for Free

Ethics of Human Cloning Essay In 1971 James D. Watson claimed that one day human cloning would be workable and noted that â€Å"as many people as possible be informed about the new ways for human reproduction and their potential consequences, both good and bad†(Burley and Harris 2001, p. 69). Watsons statement was given little attention. In 1997, the birth of Dolly, today the worlds most famous sheep, caused widespread public excitement. Dolly became artificially produced clone and proof that cloning large animals like sheep or humans would be possible. More importantly perhaps, Dolly raises many different sorts of important questions for human beings. Human cloning has been met with widespread unease all over the world and generated a series of ethical issues that will be discussed in this paper. Main Body In opposition to productive cloning it is asserted that the method would be causing danger to human beings. For example, Dr Harry Griffin, the director of the Roslin Institute, Scotland, that successfully cloned Dolly the sheep indicates that: It would be irresponsible to try and clone a human being, given the present state of the technology†¦. The chances of success are so low it would be irresponsible to encourage people to think theres a real prospect. The risks are too great for the woman, and of course for the child (Griffin, 2001). However, while the possible success regarding human cloning may be low and there may be risks of undeveloped embryos, against this it could be claimed that similar arguments could have been directed against the potential efficiency of in vitro fertilization techniques (IVF). IVF was once considered unsuccessful but today is a well-developed and valued treatment for infertility. IVF would never have developed if negative reasons such as this were successfully used to oppose it. A second concern on the subject of human cloning is about the motivation of those who would want to clone themselves and others. On the one hand, it might be accepted that human cloning would make possible for infertile couples to produce genetically related children. On the other hand, there seems to be a worry that people may use human cloning not in order to found a family but with purpose to make a copy of themselves. In addition, there may be people who hope to produce copies of other living or dead individuals. For example, it was this motivation for cloning that was the theme of the fictional film The Boys from Brazil. In the film Hitlers genotype was cloned to produce a Fuehrer for the future (Harris 1998, p. 169). However, any clone of an existing person will not be a copy of that person. Having the same genotype as another individual does not make a clone the same individual and it is probable that effects from the egg and from the environment would make any clone considerably different from their genetic twin. While this may be so, it could be likely that those who employ human cloning with purpose to produce a copy of themselves or others will not be proper parents. As a result, the welfare of any produced child will suffer. The motivation of many parents to produce a child may also not withstand close examination. What would be a good motivation for wishing to have a sun or daughter? It could be claimed that all motivations to bring to birth a child are based, at least to some degree, on the selfish feelings of future parents. A third main concern on the regard of human cloning involves these kinds of worries about the well-being of the produced child. It may be possible that any child born as a result of nuclear somatic transfer cloning will experience disadvantage either because he/she is robbed of his/her genetic identity or because he/ she will not have an open future (Harris 1998, p. 169). To what extent is a cloned person robbed of his/her genetic identity? While most human beings are genetically unique, there seems to be no indication that permitting the birth of genetically identical twins derived from a single fertilized ovum robs anyone of their genetic identity or even that the fact that twins of this kind share a genetic identity is causing harm to these individuals. It could be stated, therefore, that it thus seems not clear why this factor should make human cloning unethical. It has been indicated (Holm, 1998) that clones created by means of nuclear somatic transfer cloning will live their lives in the shadow of their older genetic twin. As a result, the clones will not have the open future that most of ordinary people have and, it might be argued, human beings have a right to. Soren Holm, for example, argues that: Usually when a child is born we ask hypothetical questions like How will it develop? or What kind of person will it become? and we often answer them with reference to various psychological traits we can identify in the biological mother or father or in their families†¦In the case of the clone we are, however, likely to give much more specific answers to such questions. Answers that will then go on to affect the way the child is reared (Holm, 1998, pp. 160-161). Holms point of view is that producing a clone that lives life in the shadow of an older genetic twin is unethical as: It diminishes the clones possibility of living a life that is in a full sense of that word his or her life. The clone is forced to be involved in an attempt to perform a complicated partial re-enactment of the life of somebody else (the original) (Holm, 1998, p. 162). This means that while people usually claim for the importance of the moral principles of respect for individual autonomy or the power to make a decision for oneself without influence from outside, people are violating these principles by robbing clones this opportunity to live their lives in the way they want. The way the clones were produced will putt them in a position where they are living in a shadow. However, even if this claim is true that clones would live in the shadow of their genetic originals, it is not obvious that this fact should compel people to prohibit human cloning. Arguments that compel people to consider the well-being of a resulting child are questionable. It has been claimed that a person is only wronged by being brought to birth if he/she has a life so bad that it would be a cruelty rather than a kindness to bring it into existence (Bennett and Harris, 2002, p. 323). This kind of unfortunate existence is sometimes characterized as an unworthwhile life. An unworthwhile life would be a life of extremely negative experience and worsening. Other lives that may be not perfect, but not so worthless as to deprive that individual of an amazing experience of living, are termed worthwhile lives. In this regard, the statement is that as long as a person is likely to have a worthwhile life he/she is not disadvantaged by being brought to birth. Thus, even if a human clone is likely to have a life that is somehow less than ideal, his or her suffering is unlikely to be such that it makes life unworthwhile. It could therefore be claimed that while being born a clone may not be the ideal way of coming into the world, it is the only opportunity of existing in this world and to have a life that is likely to be worth living. If this position was considered, it would establish human cloning as ethically acceptable at least on the grounds of giving the child a right to exist. Conclusion The topic human cloning has a number of ethically puzzling if not problematic features. Cloning will be one of the most hotly debated and least well-understood phenomena in near future. Today human cloning meets with overwhelming opposition. However, it is clear that human cloning turns out to be the perfect embodiment of the ruling possibilities for new age.