Saturday, October 26, 2019

Human Genetic Screening Essay -- Genes Science Papers

Human Genetic Screening What is genetic screening? Genetic screening is the testing of cells to check for certain kinds of genes, or for potentially damaging changes to those genes. It may be defined as a systematic search for persons with a particular genotype in a defined population. Genetic screening serves as an important adjunct of modern preventive medicine. The usual approach is to identify persons whose genotype places them or their offspring at risk for genetic diseases. Such screening has the potential to lessen the devastating impact of genetic diseases. Genetic screening may be undertaken for research purposes unrelated to disease or the improvement of health. The National Academy of Sciences recommends that genetic screening is an appropriate form of medical care only when certain conditions are met. These include: (1) evidence of substantial public benefit and acceptance, (2) the benefits outweigh the costs; (3) appropriate public education can be carried out; (4) informed consent is feasible; (5) the means are available to evaluate the effectiveness and success of each step in the process (Blank, 1982). Some screening is aimed at the general population, while others are targeted at selective high-risk population; screening can also be conducted at various stages of life. There are three principal types of genetic screening. (1) Newborn screening identifies serious genetic disease at birth, permitting prompt treatment to prevent mental and physical retardation. (2) Fetal screening and prenatal diagnosis identify genetic disease in the fetus permitting selective termination of pregnancy and the opportunity to have children free of defects detectable in uterus. (3) Carrier screening identifies individuals hete... ...5. Fost, N., 1993. Genetic diagnosis and treatment, American Journal of Diseases of Children. 147(11):1190-1195. 6. Knoppers, B.M., 1986. Genetic information and the law: constains, liability and rights. Can Med Assoc J. 135(12):1257-1259. 7. Markel, H.M., 1992. The stigma of disease: implication of genetic screening. The Americal Journal of Medicine 93:209-214. 8. Rowley, P.T., 1984. Genetic screening: marvel or menace? Science 225(4658) Jul 13: 138-144. 9. Waugh, D., 1994. The human-genome project and pandor's box. Can Med Assoc J. 151(1):73. 10. "What is genetic screening" obtained from the WWW: http:/ 11. "The principles of genetics and heredity" obtained from the WWW: http:/ bin/g?docF=macro/5002/57/50.html&DBase=Articles&hits=10&context=all ¶gra phType=1&indexremove=off#0102

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