Wednesday, July 31, 2019
A Moonlight Fable H.G.Wells Background Beginning Middle Ending Ending Cont. Middle Cont. Symbols H.G. Wells was an English author in the science fiction genre. He is known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Father of Science Fiction.Ã¢â¬ He began studying in biology and soon wrote novels on the Darwinian theory. Wells is known for his haunting and unpredictable stories. A mother sews a suit for her son and he loves it so much he wants to wear it all the time. His mother insists that he keeps it safely locked away until a special day. He adored it so much that he dreamt about it, but would only wear it once a week. His mother let him wear the suit as long as the buttons were covered in tissue so they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t tarnish.The boy was attentive to the buttons and saw them getting duller, which caused him anxiety. On night, when the moonlight shined through the window, the boy finds the urge to put the suit on. He tears all of the tissues and protective items off. He hurries out of his house and into his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s garden in the suit. He runs carelessly through the garden letting the thorns rip the jacket. He then runs into the duck pond and swims around. After swimming in the pond, he sees a moth and lets it fly around his head. He chases it and falls into a pit without noticing. The next morning, he is found dead at the bottom of the pit. Moonlight-Opportunity to change When the moonlight the story, the man begins to venture into wearing his suit The moonlight in the garden drives him to run through the thorns Buttons-Hopes and happiness Throughout the story, his happiness is suppressed and hidden like the buttons When he takes of the tissue, he is liberated and can finally be happy Garden- freedom In the garden, the boy is happiest and can be free When he dies in the lake, he is smiling showing that he was finally free and happy Symbols Cont. Setting & Characters Characters: the young boy and his mom Setting: In their home and church, not time is specified, most significant occurrences are during the night Important Quotations Ã¢â¬Å"It seemed to him the moonlight was not common moonlight, nor the night a common night, and for a while he lay quite drowsily with this odd persuasion in his mind.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He did not care, for he knew it was all part of the wearing for which he had longed.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËDo you think my clothes are beautiful, dear moth? AsÃ beautiful as your scales and all this silver vesture of the earth and sky?'Ã¢â¬ A Moonlight Fable By AYESHANUML90 | May 2013 Page 1 of 2 Summary and analysis of A Moonlight Fable by HGWells? Literature and Language Questions Answers.com > Wiki Answers > Categories > Literature & Language * Coke KahaniA story of our lives, happiness & togetherness, on your TV Screens.www.facebook.com/cocacola * FablesFind, Create, Share Infos With Attrakt Custom Searchwww.attrakt.com/ Ads Best Answer In this short story by H.G. Wells, a young man loves a suit that his mother sews for him. He loves this suit so much, he wants to wear it all the time. His mother however insists he keep the suit safely packed away until his wedding day. It was green and gold and woven so that I cannot describe how delicate and fine it was, and there was a tie of orange fluffiness that tied up under his chin. And the buttons in their newness shone like stars. He was proud and pleased by his suit beyond measure, and stood before the long looking-glass when first he put it on, so astonished and delighted with it that he could hardly turn himself away. The boy loved his suit so much that he dreamt about it. He would often take the suit out of itÃ¢â¬â¢s storage and admire it. His mother allowed him to wear the suit on Sundays to church, but with tissue covering the buttons so they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t tarnish and tacked on protective guards on the elbows and cuffs so they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t tear. Whenever the boy would peek at the buttons under the tissue wrap, he would notice they were becoming duller and duller, and this would cause him anxiety. One night he sees the moonlight shining into his bedroom and he gets out of bed with an urge to put the suit on. He makes up his mind to tear off the protective tissue and guards off the suit. Thought joined on to thought like things that whisper warmly in the shadows. Then he sat up in his little bed suddenly, very alert, with his heart beating very fast and a quiver in his body from top to toe. He had made up his mind. He knew now that he was going to wear his suit as it should beÃ¢â¬ ¦
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Manual on Module II Introduction to Hospitality By Authors Mr Murray Mackenzie School of Hotel & Tourism Management The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Dr Benny Chan Hong Kong Community College The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Consultant Mr Tony Tse School of Hotel & Tourism Management The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Introduction to Hospitality Copyright Ã © The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region All rights reserved.The copyright of this manual belongs to the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Commercial use is strictly prohibited. Offenders will be liable to the legal responsibility. Schools need not apply for permission to copy this manual in whole or in part for non-profit making educational or research purposes. All other uses should gain prior permission in writing from the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Requests should be directed to the: Education Bureau 3/F, Room 1319, Wu Chung House 213 QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s Road East, Wan Chai, Hong Kong i Introduction to Hospitality Acknowledgements We would like to express our gratitude to the following organizations for giving us the permission to reprint some of the pictures and /or providing us with information for completing the curriculum support package: The Association of National Tourist Office Representatives in Hong Kong, ANTOR (HK) Centre for Food Safety, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department ii Introduction to Hospitality IntroductionA set of curriculum support package of tourism and hospitality learning and teaching materials is being developed by the Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section of Curriculum Development Institute, Education Bureau for the implementation of the senior secondary Tourism and Hospitality Studies curriculum in schools. The curriculum support package is comprised of eight manuals, and they are developed to broaden studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of the eight different units of the Tourism and Hospitality Studies curriculum.The content of this manual Ã¢â¬â Introduction to Hospitality, should enhance studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding of the dynamic nature of the tourism and hospitality industry. In addition, the manual includes activities to deepen studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding and help them to apply theories and concepts. Furthermore, students should be able to develop enquiry, problem-solving and decision-making skills through these activities. All comments and suggestions related to this curriculum support package may be sent to: Chief Curriculum Development Officer (PSHE) Personal, Social and Humanities Education Curriculum Development InstituteEducation Bureau 13/F, Room 1319, Wu Chung House 213 QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s Road East, Wan Chai Hong Kong April 2009 iii Introduction to Hospitality Table of Contents 1 Hospitality Industry Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 1 1. 1 Introduction to Hospitality Industry Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 1 1. 1. 1 1. 1. 2 The Tangible and Intangible Nature of the Hospitality Industry Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 3 1. 1. 3 2 The Nature of the Hospitality Industry Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 1Relationship between the Hospitality Industry and Tourism Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 3 Accommodation SectorÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 6 2. 1 Introduction to th e Accommodation SectorÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 6 2. 1. 1 2. 2 Classification of Accommodation Establishment Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 6 Introduction to the Hotel OperationsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 12 2. 2. 1 Hotel Ownership Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 2 2. 2. 2 The Functions and Departments of a Hotel Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 15 2. 2. 3 Introduction to the Rooms Divisi on Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 17 2. 2. 4 Front Office Operations Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 17 2. 2. 4. 1 Guest Cycle Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 18 2. 2. 4. 2 Front Office Department Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 22 2. . 4. 3 Types of Hotel Guest Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 36 2. 2. 4. 4 The Accommodation Product Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 37 2. 2. 5 Housekeeping Operations Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 41 2. 2. 5. 1 2. 2. 5. 2 In-room Guest Supplies and Amenities Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 49 2. 2. 5. 3 Room Status CodesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 50 2. 2. 5. 4Types of Guest Requests Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 52 2. 2. 5. 5 3 Housekeeping Department Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 41 Security Procedures Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 55 Food and Beverage Sector Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 57 3. 1 Introduction to the Food and Beverage SectorÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 57 3. 1. 1 Food and Beverage Operations (Hotel)Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 7 3. 1. 2 Classification of Food Service Establishments Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 78 iv Introduction to Hospitality 3. 1. 3 3. 2 3. 2. 1 Types of Food and Beverage Services Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 82 Food and Beverage Service Principles Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 86 Basic Knowledge of Menus, Food and Beverage Services and Kitchen OperationsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã ¢â¬ ¦. 86 3. 2. 2Ambience of an Establishment Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 98 3. 2. 3 Menu Planning and Design Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 110 3. 3 4 Food Safety and Personal HygieneÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 117 The Role of Technology in the Hospitality Industry Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 240 4. 1 The Development of Technology in the Hospitality Industry Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 240 4. 1. 1 The Importance of Employing Up-to-date Information Technology Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢ â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 40 4. 1. 2 The Ways Technological Changes Improve the Operational Efficiency of the Hospitality Industry for Customers, Tourists and Staff Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 242 4. 1. 3 The Property Management System (PMS) in HotelsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 243 References Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 246 v Introduction to Hospitality 1 Hospitality Industry 1. 1 Introduction to Hospitality Industry 1. 1. 1 The Nature of the Hospitality Industry What is the meaning of HOSPITALITY? There have been different definitions of Hospitality.Broadly speaking, Hospitality is the act of kindness in welcoming and looking after the basic needs of guests or strangers, mainly in relation to food, drink an d accommodation. A contemporary explanation of Hospitality refers to the relationship process between a guest and a host. When we talk about the Ã¢â¬Å"Hospitality IndustryÃ¢â¬ , we are referring to the companies or organisations which provide food and/or drink and/or accommodation to people who are away from home. However, this definition of the Ã¢â¬Å"Hospitality IndustryÃ¢â¬ only satisfies most situations. Can you think of any circumstances where the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"away from homeÃ¢â¬ would not be accurate?Resort hotel 1 Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 1 In groups, consider the hospitality industry in Hong Kong. Discuss the different sectors in the hospitality industry. (Hint: A sector of hospitality industry can be profit-making or non-profit-making. ) You may also give the names of some companies in the hospitality industry. One example has been given in the table below. Work on the table to see which group in your class comes up with the most appropriate examples. H ospitality industry in Hong Kong Sector Products/services provided Example Name of company/ organisation Food and BeverageFood and drink Fast food McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s ACTIVITY 2 Look at the table that your group has just completed and compare the answers with other groups. Have you been to any of the above companies or organisations? What services did you receive from them? Were you satisfied with the way you were treated by the company or its staff? Did they understand what services you wanted? Did they provide what you wanted quickly and accurately? Was the staff member friendly or rude? Based on the discussion above, suggest five qualities or traits that a successful staff member in the hospitality industry should possess.Do you or your group members possess any of these qualities or traits? 2 Introduction to Hospitality 1. 1. 2 The Tangible and Intangible Nature of the Hospitality Industry In Activity 1, we learned about different types of products and services provided by the hos pitality industry. The physical products of hospitality, e. g. food and drink in a restaurant or the actual hotel room, are products that are sold at a price to the guests or customers (e. g. the price a guest paid for renting a hotel room, or the price a customer paid for buying a meal in a restaurant). These are often regarded as the TANGIBLE aspects of hospitality.However, our experience of the hospitality industry does not only rely on the tangibles. Think about your experience of being a customer in a restaurant or a guest in a hotel. What else, apart from the food in restaurants and the facilities in hotel rooms, do you think can make your hospitality experience more enjoyable and satisfied? A successful hospitality business does not only count on its products and services, but also how they are delivered. The qualities of staff and the way they deliver the service are often more important than the tangible products in making a hospitality experience satisfactory or unsatisfac tory.We call these the INTANGIBLE aspects of hospitality. Can you think of any INTANGIBLE aspects of the hospitality industry? 1. 1. 3 Relationship between the Hospitality Industry and Tourism As we have seen, the hospitality industry includes hotels and restaurants, as well as many other types of organisations or institutions that offer food, drink, shelter and other related services. These products and services are offered not only to people away from home, but also to local guests. A manager in the hospitality industry, therefore, must keep in mind the following three objectives: 1. Making the guests feel welcome personally . Making things work for the guests 3. Making sure that the operation will continue to provide service and meet its budget Apart from local guests, can you think of any other guests who may need services and products provided by the hospitality industry? 3 Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 3 Now work in pairs and follow the instructions below: Tourist A Ã¢â ¬â You are an 18-year-old student from Beijing. You visit Hong Kong for the first time with your cousin who is also from Beijing this summer. As you are a student, you travel on a budget and are planning to come to Hong Kong round trip by train.You plan to stay in Hong Kong for 5 days/4 nights. Tourist B Ã¢â¬â You are a businessman from Sweden. Your company is a car manufacturer. You come to Hong Kong for an international automobile exhibition. You will fly to Hong Kong and stay for two nights before you fly to Singapore for another business meeting. You will stay in Singapore for two nights before going home. In two minutes, write down as many as possible of the products and services you would require from the different sectors of the tourism industry for your trip. Compare your answers with those of your partner.Do you have different or similar answers? How many of the points you jotted down are similar to those of your partner? Fill in the following table: A young student ( Tourist A) A business traveller (Tourist B) In Activity 3 we learned there are different kinds of tourists. Regardless of what type of tourist they are, they all need shelter and food and drink Ã¢â¬â the basic hospitality services Ã¢â¬â at ALL points of the tourism cycle, not just at the destination. This is why hospitality can be referred to as one of the principal dimensions in tourism, along with transportation, specialist shops and leisure activities.Unlike tourism, hospitality, however, serves both tourist and non-tourist needs. To enhance your understanding of the relationship between the hospitality and tourism industry, complete Activity 4. 4 Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 4 The following diagram shows the relationship between the hospitality and tourism industry. Can you think of more services with examples to add to the diagram? Hospitality Industry Tourism Industry Hospitality Institutional/ Welfare Catering e. g. Hospital Catering Commercial Accommodation Ser vices e. g. Hotels, Guest HousesTransportation services e. g. Car Rental, Airlines In Activity 4 we learned the hospitality industry is a part of a wider group of economic activities called tourism. In addition, not all hospitality businesses are profit-making business. In this Unit, we have learned that there are two main business sectors in the hospitality industry: ? Accommodation Ã¢â¬â To provide accommodation (and usually food and drink) to people who for whatever reason are away from home ? Food and beverage Ã¢â¬â To provide food and beverage to local, commuting, transient customers and touristsThese two sectors will be covered in more detail in Units 2 and 3 respectively. 5 Introduction to Hospitality 2 Accommodation Sector 2. 1 Introduction to the Accommodation Sector 2. 1. 1 Classification of Accommodation Establishment Guestroom There is no generic rule for classifying accommodation establishments globally. One method is to divide accommodation into two main groups: ? ? Non-commercial Commercial Accommodation Non-commercial Commercial Hotels Private e. g. Private Home Non-profit e. g. Shelter Institutional e. g. University Figure 1: Accommodation structure 6 Introduction to HospitalityThe Hotel Proprietors Ordinance Chapter 158 provides a clear definition of a hotel: Hotel means an establishment held out by the proprietor as offering sleeping accommodation to any person presenting himself who appears able and willing to pay a reasonable sum for the services and facilities provided and who is in a fit state to be received. As Hotel is the predominant type of commercial accommodation in Hong Kong, we, therefore, will discuss in depth about how hotels can be classified. Hotels can be classified by: ? Location: e. g. city centre hotels, suburban hotels, airport hotels and highway hotels/motels ? Function: e. g. ommercial hotels and convention hotels ? Market segment: e. g. resorts, health spas, timeshares/vacation ownership and casino hotels ? Dist inctiveness of property: e. g. all-suite hotels, boutique hotels, extended-stay hotels, historic conversions and bed and breakfast inns ? Price and staff/room ratio ? Size: e. g. under 150 rooms, 151-300 rooms, 301-600 rooms, more than 600 rooms ? Rating (grading) : e. g. one-star to five-star or one-diamond to five-diamond In 2008, the Mobil Travel Guide used its own rating system to give awards to some hotels in Hong Kong, Macau and Beijing. Below is an excerpt from the following web link: ttp://stars. mobilinternationalratings. com/stars Ã¢â¬Å"Mobil Travel Guide, now in its 51st year as one of the oldest and most respected inspection and ratings system in the world, is pleased to announce its 2009 Four- and Five-Star Winners. Representing a landmark in the company's history, 2009 is the first year that international cities have been rated and received Star Awards, and the winners from Beijing, Hong Kong, and Macau are included. In November, Hong Kong and Macau were awarded with the most Mobil Five-Star rated hotels and spas for a given city in the history of the company. Ã¢â¬ 7 Introduction to HospitalityACTIVITY 5 With the aid of the above web link, list the five-star hotels and spas in Hong Kong as awarded by the Mobil Travel Guide in November 2008. ACTIVITY 6 The Hong Kong Tourism Board (HKTB) has developed its own hotel classification system. Look up the information from the PartnerNet website (http://partnernet. hktb. com/pnweb/jsp/comm/index. jsp) and answer the following questions: a) How does HKTB define the hotels in Hong Kong? b) Does HKTB make public the listing of hotels by category? The following chart shows various types of accommodation used by travellers and their respective characteristics:Name(s) City centre hotels Characteristics These hotels are located within the heart of a city. The type may vary greatly from business, suites, residential, economy, mid-scale to luxury. Local example: ____________________ Suburban hotels Suburban ho tels tend to be smaller properties which usually provide full-service, and locate in suburban area. Local example: ____________________ These hotels are designed especially to accommodate air travellers. They offer a mix of facilities and amenities. The majority offer guests transportation to and from the airport.Local example: ____________________ Airport hotels They are designed for overnight stays for car travellers, often with very Highway hotels/Motels basic facilities. The rooms usually have direct access to an open parking lot. They are often smaller than most hotels. They are located on the outskirts of towns and cities. Local example: ____________________ Convention hotels These hotels can have 2000 rooms or more. In addition to accommodation, they provide extensive meeting and function space for holding conventions. There are banquet areas within and around the hotel complex.Most of them provide an in-house laundry, a business centre, airport shuttle service, and 24-hour r oom service. They are often in close proximity to convention centres and other convention hotels. Local example: ____________________ 8 Introduction to Hospitality Commercial They are located in downtown areas. They tend to be smaller than convention hotels. Meeting and function space are smaller, and there hotels are fewer banquet areas. Local example: ____________________ Resort hotels These hotels are located in picturesque, sometimes remote settings. Guests travel long distance to resorts. Usually, they tend to stay longer.Resorts typically provide a comprehensive array of recreational amenities, as well as a variety of food & beverage outlets ranging from informal to fine-dining restaurants. Local example: ____________________ Spa hotels They are located in resort-type settings or as part of city spa hotels. They provide accommodations, spa treatments, programs and cuisine. Programs offered vary widely. They may include relaxation/stress management, fitness, weight management, grief/life change and pilates/yoga. Spas have professional staff that often include dieticians, therapists, masseurs, exercise physiologists, and in some cases, physicians.Local example: ____________________ Timeshares/ This is a type of shared ownership where a buyer purchases the right to use the property for a portion of each year. In many cases, when the Vacation timeshare is purchased, the buyer receives a deed. This indicates that ownership the buyer can use the property each year at the time specified for the number of years based on the deed and the purchase can be handed down to the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s heirs. Local example: ____________________ Casino hotels They have gambling operations which are the major revenue centres. They also provide live entertainment.A wide variety of luxury amenities, hotel services including fine and casual dining and shopping centres are typically available on site. Local example: ____________________ All-suite hotels The guest rooms in these hotels are larger than normal hotel rooms, with separate areas for working, sleeping and relaxing. A living area or parlour is typically separated from the bedroom, and some properties offer a kitchen set-up in the rooms. The amenities and services can vary widely. They can be found in various locations such as urban, suburban, or residential. Local example: ____________________ 9 Introduction to Hospitality Boutique otels Boutique hotels differentiate themselves from traditional hotels and motels by providing personalized accommodation and services/facilities. They are sometimes known as Ã¢â¬Å"design hotelsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"lifestyle hotelsÃ¢â¬ . The price varies greatly. They are very different in their Ã¢â¬Å"look and feelÃ¢â¬ from traditional lodging properties. They are more intimate, and, perhaps, more luxurious, and stand out as an individual. The amenities vary greatly depending on what the hotelÃ¢â¬â¢s environment and theme chosen. For example, a boutique hotel may not of fer Wi-Fi Internet, air conditioning, or cable/pay TV if it is focus on comfort and solitude.Local example: ____________________ Extendedstay hotels/ Serviced Apartments These properties cater to guests who stay for an extended period. They usually offer full kitchen facilities, shopping services, business services and limited housekeeping services. Local example: ____________________ Historic conversion hotels These properties have historic significance. They have been converted into lodging establishments with retention of their historic character. Local example: ____________________ They are usually family-owned. They are private homes whose owner Bed and ives on or near the premises and rents out rooms to overnight guests. breakfast inns (B) The paid accommodation typically includes breakfast. A popular term is Ã¢â¬Å"B (i. e. bed and breakfast provided). The host often provides guests with assistance regarding directions, and information regarding the local area including sight seeing suggestions. It is usually located in rural areas and villages. Local example: ____________________ Guest houses Guest houses are similar to bed and breakfast inns. They range from low-budget rooms to luxury apartments. They tend to be like small hotels in bigger cities.Though the facilities are limited, most rooms are air-conditioned with en-suite shower and toilet. Local example: ____________________ Hostels They are very cheap accommodation. The sleeping arrangements are usually in dormitory style and there may also be self-catering facilities on site. Local example: ____________________ They are bedrooms on a ship or train for passengers. Local example: ____________________ Villas/Chalet They are self-catering accommodation in a private bungalow, usually rented to prestigious or renowned guests. In many cases, it refers to a s (usually small cottage with an overhanging roof in a seaside resort, e. . beach found in houses. skiing and Local example: ____________________ bea ch resorts) Cabins 10 Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 7 Based on the characteristics of various types of accommodation listed above, browse the website and fill in a local example. In Activity 7 we learned that a hotel may fall under more than one classification. For example, The Landmark Mandarin Oriental, Hong Kong is a luxury city centre and spa hotel. In addition, different types of hotel will offer different kinds of products and services for their guests and will be run differently to meet their guestsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs.A luxury hotel may provide more personalised services and facilities that may not appear in a limited-service hotel. Examples include high-speed broadband Internet access, LCD televisions, DVD/CD home entertainment sound systems, 24-hour butler service and in-room dining, and 24-hour concierge and business services. 11 Introduction to Hospitality 2. 2 Introduction to the Hotel Operations Hotel swimming pool Hotel fitness centre 2. 2. 1 Hotel Ownership Another way to classify hotels is by their ownership, which can be: ? Private An independent hotel owned by a person/partnership/private company e. . Shamrock Hotel ? Local group Several hotels owned by a local company e. g. Harbour Grand Hong Kong, The Kowloon Hotel, Harbour Plaza Hong Kong, Harbour Plaza Metropolis, Harbour Plaza North Point and Harbour Plaza Resort City are all owned by Harbour Plaza Hotels & Resorts ? International group A hotel which is part of an international chain of hotels e. g. JW Marriott Hotel Hong Kong is part of the Marriott International, Inc. 12 Introduction to Hospitality Hotel management Hotels can be operated in one of the following ways: ? Independently owned and operatedThese can be independent hotels, with no affiliation, that are being managed by the owners of the properties. ? Management contract Management contracts are hotel management companies which operate properties owned by other entities. In some cases, the hotel owners may arrange to run the ir properties through a management contract with a company that specialises in managing hotels. The reason for this is that the owner may not: Ã¢â¬â Have the necessary expertise Ã¢â¬â Desire to become involved in the operation of the hotel Benefits for the hotel management company: Ã¢â¬â Little or no up-front financing or equity involved Manage the property for the contract period such as five, ten or twenty years Ã¢â¬â Receive a management fee during the contract period ? Franchising Some investors prefer to use the franchising concept in running the hotel. Franchising in the hospitality industry is a concept that: Ã¢â¬â Allows interested investors to use a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s (the franchisor) name and business format Ã¢â¬â Is made up of properties where the franchisees agree to run the hotel in accordance with the strict guidelines set by the franchisor Ã¢â¬â Allows a company to expand more rapidly by using othersÃ¢â¬â¢ capital Benefits for the franchisee: Obta in from the franchisor the expertise in doing business such as site selection, planning, pre-opening training, operations manuals, information management, central reservation system, field support, quality control, purchasing, advertising, marketing, new products and concepts Ã¢â¬â The franchisee has complete control and responsibility over the daily operation of the property In return, the franchisor receives a joining fee and an ongoing fee from the franchisee. 13 Introduction to Hospitality ? Referrals Referral associations, e. g. Leading Hotels of the World (LHW), offer to hotels similar benefits as franchising, but at a lower cost.Some hotels choose to become a referral property. This means that the property is being operated as an independent hotel in association with a certain chain. These hotels refer guests to one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s properties and share a centralised reservation system, a common logo, image, or advertising slogan. Hotels pay an initial fee to join a referr al association and further fees are based on services required. As the property has already been physically developed, the owner may want assistance only with marketing, advertising, management, or reservation referral.In addition, guests may find more variation among the referral properties as size and appearance standards are less stringent than those in a franchise agreement. However, every hotel is assessed and checked regularly to ensure that it maintains the highest standards. ACTIVITY 8 State two drawbacks for a franchisee joining a franchise company. ACTIVITY 9 Browse the website and find out two international hotel chains that provide management contract and franchising services to the hotel owners. 14 Introduction to Hospitality 2. 2. 2 The Functions and Departments of a HotelThe day-to-day operations of a hotel are the key factors determining the success or failure of its service. It is necessary to understand the structure of hotels in order to get an overview of how the organisation fits together. General Manager Resident Manager Rooms Division Engineering Security Human Resources Food & Beverage Sales & Marketing Accounts Figure 2: Major departments of a five-star hotel Regardless of the size of a hotel, the organisational structure will be basically the same. It is usually divided into several distinct departments, each responsible for a particular area of work.The larger the hotel is and the more facilities it offered, the more specialised the departments become. For example, the front office and housekeeping department are under the control of the director of rooms. The duties of key executives 1. General Manager The main responsibilities of the general manager (GM) include: ? Providing leadership to the management team ? Coordinating the work of all departments ? Participating in the formulation of hotel policies and strategies ? Leading the hotel staff in meeting the financial, environmental and community responsibilities Assuming full respo nsibilities for the overall performance of the hotel 2. Resident Manager The main responsibilities of the resident manager include: ? Holding a major responsibility in developing and executing plans developed by the owner(s), the general manager and other members of the management team ? Checking on operations, providing feedback and offering assistance when needed ? Completing, reviewing and summarizing statistical reports and sharing them with the general manager ? Assuming responsibilities for the daily operations and management of the hotel 5 Introduction to Hospitality Functions of major hotel departments 1. Engineering The engineering department is responsible for maintaining the physical plant of the hotel such as electricity, plumbing, air conditioning, heating and elevator systems; and for overseeing all mechanical and technical conditions of the hotel. 2. Security Security is an important concern in every hotel. The security department is responsible for implementing proce dures which aim at protecting the safety and security of hotel guests, visitors, hotel employees and the hotel itself.Examples include monitoring surveillance equipments, patrolling the hotel premises and maintaining security alarm systems. 3. Human Resources The human resources (personnel and training) department is responsible for hiring, orientation, training, wages and benefit administration, labour relations, employee relations, and staff development. 4. Food and Beverage The food and beverage (F) department provides food and beverage services to the hotel guests and visitors through a variety of outlets and facilities/services.Examples include lounge, bar, coffee shop, restaurants, banquet service, room service (also called in-room dining) and cake shop. 5. Sales and Marketing The main functions of the sales and marketing department involve generating new businesses for the hotel, coordinating advertising, as well as sales promotions and public relations activities aiming at e nhancing the hotelÃ¢â¬â¢s image. 6. Accounts The accounts department is headed by the financial controller who, as a key member of the management team, can guide the hotel to an increasing profitability through better control and asset management.In addition, this department is responsible for monitoring all of the financial activities of a hotel. Examples include overseeing accounts receivable, accounts payable, payroll, and cost control systems of the hotel; keeping records of assets, liabilities and financial transaction of the hotel; preparing the monthly profit-and-loss statement, coordinating with purchasing department and information technology department, and handling guestsÃ¢â¬â¢ inquiries about billing. The functions of Rooms Division will be covered in detail in Unit 2. 2. 3. ACTIVITY 10Browse the website and find a five-star hotel in Hong Kong/Macau that has a video in English and Chinese promoting its services and facilities to the guests. 16 Introduction to Hospita lity 2. 2. 3 Introduction to the Rooms Division Rooms Division Front Office Department Housekeeping Department Figure 3: Organisation of the rooms division The main source of income for most hotels comes from the rooms division and the food and beverage department. In general, the rooms division comprises two major departments, the front office and housekeeping, which are involved in the sales or services of rooms to guests.The director of rooms is responsible to the general manager for the effective leadership and smooth operation of all departments that make up the rooms division. Front desk counter 2. 2. 4 Front Office Operations The front office is the nerve centre or hub of a hotel. It is the department that makes the first and last impression on the guests, and the place that guests approach for information and service throughout their stays. 17 Introduction to Hospitality Front desk clerk The three main functions of the front office are as follows: 1. Selling rooms 2.Maintain ing balanced guest accounts 3. Providing services and information to guests 2. 2. 4. 1Guest Cycle The operation of the front office department is mainly determined by the type and number of guest transactions which take place during the four different phases of the guest cycle as shown in Figure 4 and listed below: ? Pre-arrival The stage where the guest makes room reservation. ? Arrival The point when the guest arrives at the hotel. ? Occupancy The period during which the guest stays in the hotel. ? Departure The point when the guest checks out and leaves the hotel. 8 Introduction to Hospitality Figure 4: The guest cycle Complete Activity 11 to enhance your understanding of the various types of transactions and services which may occur between the guest and the hotel during different phases of the guest cycle. 19 Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 11 Determine at which stage(s) of the guest cycle the following guest transaction or service could occur. a) Fill in the Answer column below with the correct alphabet (A-D) which denotes the four different stages of the guest cycle. A Ã¢â¬â Pre-arrival B Ã¢â¬â Arrival C Ã¢â¬â OccupancyD Ã¢â¬â Departure The first one has been done as an example for you. No. Guest Transaction or Service Answer(s) 1. Reservation A 2. Mail and information 3. Transportation 4. Telephone call and message 5. Check-in and registration 6. Flight confirmation 7. Room assignment 8. Safe deposit 9. Issuing of key 10. Baggage handling 11. Maintaining guest account 12. Bill settlement 13. Issuing of breakfast coupon 14. Currency exchange 15. Wake-up call 16. Check-out 17. Booking of theatre ticket 20 Introduction to Hospitality b) When you complete studying this section Ã¢â¬â 2. 2. Front Office Operations, try this activity again by filling in your answers using the guest cycle provided below. In Activity 11, we have learned that different types of guest transactions and services could occur in the four different phases of the gu est cycle which are being handled mainly by the front office department. The following will explain how different sections of the front office department are being organised to handle these guest transactions. 21 Introduction to Hospitality 2. 2. 4. 2 Front Office Department Front Office Manager Assistant Front OfficeManager Assistant Manager Telephone Services Manager Reservations Manager Front Desk Manager Guest Relations Telephone Supervisor Reservations Supervisor Front Desk Supervisor Telephone Operator Reservations Clerk Front Desk Clerk Chief Concierge Baggage Supervisor Baggage Porter Executive Floor Manager Senior Airport Representative Executive Floor/Business Centre Airport Representative Door Attendant Parking Parking Attendant/Driver Attendant Figure 5 Front office organisation chart of a large hotel Figure 5 shows an organizational chart for a front office.This illustrates the structure and lines of communication which operate within the front office. The front office department is headed by the front office manager (FOM) whose main duty is to enhance guest services by constantly developing services to meet guestsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. The FOM performs the following duties: ? Monitoring reservation status ? Looking over market mix and preparing occupancy forecasts ? Determining rate structures and supervising implementation of rate policies ? Reviewing previous nightÃ¢â¬â¢s occupancy and average room rate ? Reviewing arrivals and departures for the day and the next day ?Making staffing adjustments needed for arrivals and departures ? Reviewing the VIP list, checking VIP rooms, meeting VIPs and entertaining them 22 Introduction to Hospitality (1) Telephone The telephone department is headed by the telephone services manager. The telephone supervisor and telephone operator process all incoming and outgoing calls through the hotel switchboard. Staff in this department generally possesses good language and communication skills. The members need to: ? Prov ide general information regarding the hotel or local attractions to guests over the telephone Place international calls, morning calls and wake-up calls as required by guests ? Administer the paging system of the hotel, which provides a communication service between certain hotel staff and management staff who are not always in their offices ? Administer the in-room movie system of the hotel ? Stay familiar with the names of Very Important Persons (VIPs) in the hotel ? Protect guest privacy by not disclosing room number, guest information and reporting suspicious person ? Communicate weather emergency to management, engineering, security and guests ?Perform the role of communications centre in the event of emergency In order to provide better service, some hotels have introduced the Ã¢â¬Å"one-stop serviceÃ¢â¬ with all guest requests being carried out through the telephone department. For example, if a guest called in and wanted to place a booking with the coffee shop, the line w ould be transferred by the telephone operator to the coffee shop in the past. With the Ã¢â¬Å"one stop serviceÃ¢â¬ , the telephone operator will take the booking for the guest. This can speed up the booking process and leave the guest a better impression. 2) Reservations The reservations manager takes charge of this section and makes decisions on whether room reservations/bookings should be accepted when the hotel is fully booked. That is, to stop taking room reservations or to allow overbooking of rooms. The reservations supervisor will monitor closely all the room reservations taken and report to the reservations manager when abnormal situations happen. For example, there is a larger number of room cancellations than usual. The reservations clerk will: ? Handle reservation request and prepare reservation confirmation slips ?Request guests to confirm or guarantee their room reservations ? Keep records of the details of each reservation and the number of room reservation taken for each night ? Provide the front desk with details of room reservation due to arrive the next day ? Prepare VIP lists ? Update guest history records Reservations may originate from different sources: ? Direct reservation via telephone, fax, letter, e-mail or Internet ? Reservation network systems such as Leading Hotels of the World (LHW) ? Travel agents ? Tour operators ? Meeting planners ? Walk-in 23 Introduction to HospitalityWhen a reservation request is accepted, the details of the room reservation such as guest name(s), staying period, room type and rate, method of payment, guest contact information and special requests will be recorded on a reservation form, as shown in figure 6, and in the computer. It is common practice for hotels to overbook during peak season in order to ensure full occupancy as some guests are likely not to show up. Overbooking refers to a situation when the hotel takes more reservations than the number of its rooms to accommodate. Therefore, reservations clerk will request guests to guarantee their booking during peak season.For guaranteed reservation, hotel will hold the room for the guest overnight or during the guaranteed period as the guest has prepaid for the room and no refund will be given if the guest does not show up. By contrast, a non-guaranteed reservation means that the hotel will hold the room until a stated cancellation time, normally up to 6 p. m. on the arrival date and then release the room for sale if the guest does not arrive. 24 Introduction to Hospitality RESERVATION FORM ________ ____________________ Title ___________________ Surname First Name __________________ Second Name Arrival Date: Departure Date: Flight/Time:Flight/Time: No. of Persons: No. of Rooms/Room Type: Room Rate: _____________________________________ Corporate Discount Travel Agent Airline Discount Discount Courtesy Package Discount Transportation Required: Airport to Hotel Hotel to Airport Round Trip Billing Instruction: Guest A/C Room on Comp any All Expenses on Company Other: __________________ Guaranteed By: Company letter/fax/e-mail Fax Deposit Credit Card No. : ________________________________ Expiry Date: ____________ Company Name: Telephone/Fax no. : Reserved by: E-mail Address: Confirmation: Yes/No Remarks: Approved by: Taken by: Date: Figure 6:Reservation form 25 Introduction to Hospitality (3) Concierge The concierge comprises of a large group of uniformed staff, including: ? Chief Concierge ? Airport Representative ? Driver ? Parking Attendant ? Door Attendant ? Baggage Porter ? Baggage Supervisor The chief concierge is the overall in charge of this section. He/she normally works at a desk in the main foyer. The following guest services are provided by the concierge: ? Providing information/advice on hotel products/services, entertainment, attractions, sightseeing tours and local restaurants ? Confirming airline passages and purchasing airline tickets Reserving tables at restaurants and tickets to shows ? Arran ging the hire of hotel limousine and other transportation service such as a private jet ? Handling guest requests and inquiries, e. g. shopping request and an inquiry concerning the direction to a local bank Airport Representative Duties include: ? Greeting hotel guests at the airport ? Arranging hotel transportation for guests from the airport to the hotel ? Answering inquiries from guests about the different means of transportation available from the airport to the hotel such as airport express train, airport shuttle and bus ?Taking hotel room bookings ? Assisting departing guests at the airport ? Liaising with airlines for special arrangements such as wheelchair for guests and the handling of guest baggage lost by the airlines Driver Duties include: ? Taking guests to and from the airport ? Acting as personal driver for guest upon request such as taking guest to his office or for sightseeing tour Parking Attendant Duties include: ? Parking cars for guests patronising the hotel ? Assisting the door attendant in ensuring that traffic at the main entrance is smooth 26 Introduction to Hospitality Door Attendant Duties include: Greeting all new arrivals ? Providing door service to guests ? Summoning baggage porter to assist arriving guests ? Calling taxis and providing the hotel address card for guests ? Paying taxi fare on behalf of the hotel guests who do not have local currencies ? Directing traffic and parking of vehicles at the main entrance In general, the door attendant works outside the hotelÃ¢â¬â¢s entrance. Hotel entrance Baggage Porter (Bell Attendant) Duties include: ? Handling guest baggage in and out of the hotel ? Escorting check-in guests from the front desk to their rooms and introducing facilities in the room Running errands for the executive office and hotel guests such as going to the post office buying stamps/sending parcels, doing grocery shopping and obtaining visa to China for guests ? Delivering to guest room newspapers, mail, fax, mes sage and parcel, etc ? Handling storage of guest baggage/belongings for late check-out, next arrival or outsiders to pick up Baggage Supervisor (Bell Captain) Duties include: ? Answering telephone calls from guests regarding luggage pick up from room ? Assigning baggage porter to handle the guest baggage ?Receiving guest article, such as a tailor-made shirt from outsider, and assigning a baggage porter to deliver it to the guest room ? Handling guest requests for postal services such as collecting the postage fee of sending a parcel from the guest 27 Introduction to Hospitality (4) Front Desk (Reception) The front desk is headed by the front desk manager whose main duty is to ensure that the hotel achieves the highest possible level of room occupancy and the maximum revenue. Front Desk Supervisor (Reception Supervisor) Duties include: ? Overseeing the smooth running of the front desk ? Compiling duty roster Greeting important guests (VIPs) ? Assigning rooms to guests ? Dealing with group arrivals ? Handling guest requests such as room change and complaints not being able to be handled by subordinates Front Desk Clerk (Receptionist) Duties include: ? Greeting the guest ? Providing information and promoting hotel facilities and services to guests ? Checking in the guest ? Maintaining guest account ? Checking out the guest ? Administering the safe deposit system of the hotel ? Providing foreign currency exchange service to guest Registration (Check-in) The purposes of registration include the following: Recording the arrival of guest ? Confirming the personal details of guest ? Satisfying legal requirements Stages of registration ? Preparing for guest arrival such as check for arrivals with special requests ? Greeting the guest ? Determining the room rate and assigning room ? Assisting guest to complete the registration form ? Checking guestÃ¢â¬â¢s method of payment ? Handing over mail, message, article received before guest arrival and breakfast coupon (if app licable) to guest ? Issuing room key to guest ? Escorting guest to the room and introducing room facilities as required by individual hotelFigure 7 shows the sample of a completed registration form. During the process of registration, the front desk clerk will request to see the guestÃ¢â¬â¢s identity card or passport to check if the guest is an alien, for verification purpose. When all formalities are completed, the front desk clerk will issue the room key to the guest. The baggage porter will then take the guestÃ¢â¬â¢s baggage and escort the guest to the guest room. 28 Introduction to Hospitality Guests who arrive at the hotel without having made a reservation are known as walk-ins. It is common practice for hotel staff to obtain from the guest a ubstantial deposit or credit card imprint before checking the guest into the hotel. ACTIVITY 12 Mr Christie, a walk-in guest, will stay in your hotel for one night only and will be fully responsible for all charges incurred. As a front desk clerk, how would you explain to the guest that you have to collect one night room rate (HK$2,000. 00) + 10% service charge + prevailing government room tax (e. g. 3%) + an extra HK$ 1,000. 00 for hotel signing privileges from him as the deposit for check-in? 29 Introduction to Hospitality Registration Form Guest Name: Welcome to Parkside HotelMr. Brent David Ritchie Number : 8200 River Road Date of Birth: 11 Oct 77 Nationality: Canadian Passport No. : Address: Room 1718 JP089556 Richmond BC Canada V6X 3P8 Tel/Fax No. : E-mail Address: [emailÃ protected] com Destination: Engineer Arrival Date: 12 Sep 07 Flight/Time: Occupation: Next CX839/20:55 Company Name: Canada Departure 14 Sep 07 Date: CX838/16:35 Flight/Time: Room Type: Deluxe Suite No. of Nights: 2 Room Rate: $2300 (HKD) No. of Guests: 1/0 Room rate is subject to 10% (Adult/Child) Service Charge & 3% Government Tax Payment Method: VISA MASTER CUP AMEX CASH JCBDINERS OTHERS: ____________________ Guest Signature: Brent D . Ritchie I understand that the guest signature on the registration form is authorized for use of the credit card on the file for payment of my account for this and future stays. I agree that my liability for this bill is not waived, and agree to be held personally liable in the event that the indicated person, company, or other third party billed fails to pay part or all of these charges. Express Check Out Service: I hereby authorize Parkside Hotel to charge my credit card for all expenses pertaining to my stay. *Express
Monday, July 29, 2019
Deploying E-Commerce Solution - Essay Example E-Commerce has also enabled a revolution in the way the business is conducted and managed. Being touted as the business of the millennium, E-Commerce is also sometimes described as "digital economy." Simply speaking, Electronic Commerce is the paperless exchange of goods or services through the use of electronic data" (Web Transitions Inc, 2004). Due to its innumerable advantages and benefits, E-Commerce and its web applications are adapted for conducting a hassle free business over the ever popular internet. E-Commerce solutions will also offer merchants a well defined strategic advantage of creating Business to Client (B2C) relation that is sometimes very stable and well glued. Deploying E-Commerce solutions for carrying out internet business is a matter that needs to be thoroughly analyzed and assessed, before actually implementing the final solution. E-Commerce portals is thought to be a highly personalized, secure web environment that allows a business to aggregate, share, trade and exchange contents, products and services with customers, partners, employees and suppliers ( Sun Microsystems, 2006). The future for E-Commerce based merchant solutions is very rosy too, with 70% of the Global 2000 companies turning over to E-Commerce portal strategies by the year 2002, whereas by the year 2006, an estimated 75% of Fortune 1000 companies will have their own web portals to conduct E-Commerce activities almost on a daily basis (Adam Sarner, 2004). This research paper attempts to highlight the commercial importance of E-Commerce solutions, available methods by which a merchant can deploy E-Commerce solutions, different types of Internet technologies and programs that can be used to create a viable solution, and to investigate some of the well known third party E-Commerce website store solutions. It will also compare and differentiate two types of E-Commerce solutions, one that is built from the scratch by the merchants themselves, while the other built and hosted by a reliable third party service provider. Practical Ways to Deploy E-Commerce Solutions: If a merchant wants to know what it takes to successfully implement effective E-Commerce solutions, there are several means currently available for exploration. In fact, there is a plenty of help and assistance, whether a merchant wants to deploy it all by oneself, by using the in-house expertise, or hire for a fee, outside professionals who are the experts in the field. There are valid reasons to look and explore both these approaches, though small and medium sized businesses may need to be extra careful about those sensitive things, that are needed to keep an E-Commerce system up to date and current in the face of a stifling competition. Going solo all by a merchant to set up and deploy an E-Commerce solution might look very strenuous at the initial glance. But, building an E-Commerce website within the house is not actually difficult, as there are several tools, utilities and e-commerce services available at very
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Persuasive Speech on Death Penalty - Essay Example Organizations such as the International Commission against the Death Penalty are working towards changing peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes, getting the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s support so that together, they can influence, and possibly change the laws regarding the death penalty. For the death penalty policy to come to an end people have to change their attitudes; change starts with the people. The government will only take this seriously if its people show concern. The death punishment should be abolished because demeans the quality of human life, it costs the country a lot of money, it results to the death of innocents, and because life without parole is a sensible alternative. Personally, I am against the death penalty; people, let us join hands in this human rights cause of abolishing capital punishment, and let us change public attitudes towards this inhumane injustice that befalls the American people. In the future, it could be you, your friend, you family that is wrongly convicted for murder; how do you choose to remember this day? Will it be the day that you championed for the death penalty, or the day that you voted against it? Make the right choice by move for the abolishment of the death penalty law. What if one of your family members was wrongly convicted for murder? What if you were put on death row because you happened to be the last person seen leaving a crime scene where a bomb blew up and killed people? It is questions like these that raise public concern; people are more apathetic in cases where this form of injustice does not affect them, however, when a case of this nature becomes more personal, people are empathetic. Why should we be so selfish as to see what others suffer? The death penalty should be abolished because it demeans the quality of human life, it costs the country a lot of money, it results to the death of innocents, and because life without parole is a sensible
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Popular Music Since The 1950s As The Exploitation Of Black Music By White Artists And Corporations - Essay Example A number of scholars propose the idea that African-American culture and music were effective expression forms and social inclusion means. Although they originate from the folk music of the African-American slaves, Ã¢â¬Å"the root cause of transnational black identityÃ¢â¬ (Gilroy The Black Atlantic 1992, p.60), it served as an effective instrument for cultural and social inclusion throughout the 20th century. The introduction of blues, jazz and other black music genres provided blacks a strong impact over American culture and a distinguishing place in a society that was fundamentally closed to black people well into the 20th century (Chiriguayo 2002), (Dwight 1995). In the study The Spirituals and the Blues the African-American scholar James H. Cone (1991, p. 130) argued that Ã¢â¬Å"whatever form black music takes, it is always an expression of black life in America and what the people must do to survive with a measure of dignity in a society which seems bent on destroying their ri ght to be human beingsÃ¢â¬ . The book Blues People is the first real try to place major black music genres as blues and jazz within the setting of Afro-American social history, it illuminates the impact of blacks on American history and culture. Terry Jones (2005) asserts that the blues is a musical opera about life and times of Black America. The blues is the story of Black America in worldly musical form. However, Harrison (1997, p. 18) insisted that Ã¢â¬Å"blues was always a multi-racial music.... The Wikipedia encyclopedia, defines that the term exploitation may carry two distinct meanings: (1) the act of utilizing something for any purpose. In this case, exploit is a synonym for use; (2) the act of utilizing something in an unjust or cruel manner for one's own advantage. Most often, the word exploitation is used to refer to economic exploitation - the act of using another person's labor without offering them an adequate compensation. The Marxist theory is primarily concerned with the exploitation of a whole segment or class of society by another. From this point of view the black music is exploited by whites. Article of Phil Rubio 'Crossover Dreams' (1993) provides a curious vision of the confrontation between black art forms and white performers. In many cases white musicians are motivated by envy or admiration for the emulated black performers. And we see the utilization of African-American culture by whites to find the spirit and humanity, they feel they've lost. It is known that the end of a constant source of interchange and friction should not be seen as the start as 'whites have been playing black music for decades' (Davis 1995, p.84). We are not to locate the first white blues performer. The phenomenon of numerous white musicians taking up the black music is a fairly modern spectacle, beginning in the late 1950s and the early 1960s. One of the first objections to this phenomenon was made by Charles Radcliffe in the UK publication Anarchy (1965). Of course, many people did not consider singing in a black vocal style to be part of blues performance, moreover many feel that whites who have uneasy destiny, for example Hank Williams, sing in their own suffering manner, a distinctively non-black style. We can agree that
Service-dominant logic and customer satisfaction - Term Paper Example On the other hand, creation of value actualization is a vital role taken by the customers, and this may require contacting suppliers through their own individual ways. Nevertheless, numerous dimensions can be applied to approach through which new logic and value; in fact, there are critical issues rose relating to services-dominant (Achrol & Kotler, 2006, 320). Client expectations concerning value and satisfaction are based on three-concept quality with core factors for differentiating them. However, the disparities among these concepts are vague and overlapping (Bebko, 2000, 26). Expectations held by customers regard the quality of services and products encountered, which is similar to the expectations held about the entire firm, which offered the service. Moreover, there are situations that regard the expectations of individual services experienced by customers. This increase chances for them to be specific and concrete; for instance, time consumed while waiting for a receptionist, which is more of to their expectations than the entire quality of the services offered by the company. 1. Analyse and respond to the explicit expectations and implicit expectations of core clients at the start of the project front-end. ClientÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations refer to the beliefs concerning delivery of services, which considered the standards and reference point for evaluating the performance. Customers are fond of making comparison of their perceptions concerning performance of the firms, which is evaluated through references of the pointÃ¢â¬â¢s evaluation such as the level of quality, knowledge and their expectations (Gummesson, 2006, 239). In fact, identification of clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations is vital to the marketers and the entire company due to their critical aspect of seeking to deliver good quality service to them. On the other hand, lack of understanding of the customer services can result to a loss of customerÃ¢â¬â¢s business, while the competitors are gaining market share (Porter, 1985, 30). Explicit expectations of the core clients at the start of the project are based on the promises made through personal and non-personal statements concerning the services made by the company to the customer (Graf & Maas, 2008, 20). In this case, personal statements require communication through salespeople, services, or repair personnel. However, this promises become non-personal in situation when they are acquired through advertisements, brochures and other publications (Hubbert, Sehorn & Brown, 1995, 21). Therefore, logic is established through promises made concerning the exact quality of services that will be delivered in a way that manages client expectations. In this case, this guarantees that the promises made will meet the expectation of the client concerning a certain service. There are company representative, who are over-promising due to lack of knowledge regarding the necessary promise that can be made. However, confusion is caused by fail ing to consider that services are customized; thus, this lead to lack of ease in definition and repetition. In other instances, company representatives lack the knowledge concerning the nature of the final form of the service that will be delivered. Explicit services have a substantial influence on customersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations based on the desires of the services and their speculations. In fact, this is due to the way these services alter customerÃ¢â¬â¢s desires in general based on their prediction concerning the experience
Friday, July 26, 2019
The History of Racism in Australia - Essay Example In the Australian learning environment, the issue of racial discrimination has affected the way aboriginal students are treated. As a teacher, I feel the war against racial discrimination in Australia should begin in the education sector. The PDHPE teachers should be committed to implementing the various efforts that have been put forward to eliminate racial discrimination in this country. I feel that creating a fair learning environment that empowers the aboriginal students and establishes equity in activities such as sports will work well in the war against racial discrimination. Ã In Australia, the sports sector has been dominated a by a great manifestation of racial discrimination. Shannon (2013) points out that if the sport was a litmus test for racism the results would be pretty damning. The idea of Shannon is that Australian sports sector has shown the highest level of racial discrimination. This racial xenophobia in sports is a factor that has a long history in Australia and still persists today. One of the ways that racial discrimination is dominated is through the absence of aboriginal players within the existing sports teams. For instance, the first Aborigine to play cricket in Australia was seen as a great asset to the society. Shiney was the first person to play Cricket in 1835 in Australia and he became a historical icon. When he died, his head was kept in a museum to signify the rarity of such an aborigine icon. Between the year 1850 and 1987, after the death of Shiney, only 10 Aborigines has made it into the cricket teams in the country. The s tatistical coverage of the involvement of Aborigines in the Australian sports environment shows that racial discrimination in the sports sector was severe and affected the aborigines negatively. Ã Secondly, there were many stereotypical references to the Aborigines who enrolled in the sports teams.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Jean Racine - Essay Example An interesting case in this point can be round in Racine's preface to Phedre. The seventeenth-century reader would likely have been surprised to find there no mention of pardon, whose parasitic rival version of the same story set off an unusually venomous battle. (Bold, 2001) According to Bold "Racine's own creation is modestly represented, as a carefully charted divergence from the Eurpidean 'Route' to which Racine remains richly indebted, serving 'Phedre' as an exemplary character". "The litotes of this opening, which might be read as a ritual gesture of authorial self-effacement, conceals in fact a far more complex irony in as much as it erases more than we at first think more, that is, than the simple vanity of a purely original creation, an inventio ex nihilo. One is, upon reflection, struck by a number of things in this apparently modest statement. This is certainly one of the very few places where one can find the character of Phedre described, at whatever level, as reasonable. It has also been fairly argued that Euripides's tragedy Hippolytus given the play's title and the stepmother's early guilt-ridden suicide is not really about Phedre anyway. More importantly, as it implies only a difference between the Latin and the French versions, Racine's dismissive reference identifies the Senecan text as the site of corruption and consequently, as an alibi for his own text's purer origins". (Bold, 2001) 'Phedre' the entire play revolves around the concept of 'monster'. To how much the statement is true can be determined from the fact that 'Phedre' represents the corruption and evil enriched in the social attitude of French culture of the then seventeenth century. Racine wanted the society to confront to the social dilemmas so it seems as if he has shown the French society, a mirror so that they might acknowledge their reality in the form of corruption and vulgarity. The main monster according to my perception is the evil that resides deep within a human, now it depends upon the person as to whether he feeds and nourishes that evil so that the evil grows up to become a 'monster' or he remains callous towards the evil, so that eventually he is alleviated. Let us see and examine every central character of 'Phedre' in the light of 'monstrous' appeal. 'Hippolytus' in other monsters Though Hippolytus is unmonstrous as compared to other characters in 'Phedre', but he fails to succeed through the rein of monstrous characters. One reason might be the strength of his inner self and conscience, which escorted him to remain aloof from participating in the devilish works of 'Phedre'. His reason for being morally ethical is the true love of 'Aricia', which lead him towards the light instead of thrusting into the darkness of horror which otherwise would have transformed him into the monster. He is the only character perceived to be 'human' as he knows the morals of relations, and unlike other characters in 'Phedre' he has trained his ego towards goodness and moral values. The reason for other
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Global History - Essay Example Commercial expansion meant not only that the land was the only source of living but more people could buy the land to have a status of nobility in the society. It brought a revolution both in political and military meanings. The new wealthy group people had the resources now to get armors and arms and the regiment of 'hoplites' Hoplites completely depended on their powers to act as a disciplined force. It culminated among them the need for unity. They started discussing their problems in public sittings. Such collective agreement was the beginning of polis- the city state. New wealth meant new men so the aristocracy became the victim of the wealthy class. The new men replaced aristocracy, they set a government which less gave honor to traditional values. The tyrants, who replaced the aristocracy, brought peace after the skirmishes, arising because of the pressure on lands. They introduced a system of magistrates and believed in providing justice to the aggrieved. All these internal and of course external influence were the major factors which led to the concept of city state in Greek civilization. Anderson. Perry. Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism. London, Verso, 1974 Roberts. J.M. The History of the World. New York. Viking Penguin Inc. 1983. (2) The other factors were also responsible for the emerging of the city states in Greek The geography of Greek also played an important role in the formation of the city states. The territory of a city state was one of the narrow valleys and it had menial resources to provide for sustenance. The soil of Attica was not very fertile and Athens would have to depend on imported grain Dialect intensified the sense of...Slavery was the part of Greek civilization. Aristotle was of the view that slaves are born slaves because nature did not give them the right of freedom. Slavery was a prevailing fact and it contributed a great deal in the nascent years of Greek city life. Athens was able to produce pottery, wine and olive oil because of slavery. J.M. Roberts points out that slavery was all pervasive and remained a common feature in the Christian world for so long.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Music - Assignment Example The Gypsy Laddie also evidences localization and changing beliefs with the reference to the lady running with the gypsies and leaving her Lord and child reflecting the changing status in the community at the time with Lords and gypsies. Balladic formulas involved the use of recurrent phrases, stanzas, and lines to express narrative ideas and underline the ballad narrative making it easy to remember the words of a ballad while common modifiers were used in changing pitches. The formulas allowed for the remembering of a shortened fashion of large narrative depicting its importance in remembering words in a ballad. Examples of formulas and common modifiers include the stock words, whole stanzas, incremental repetition, phrases. In songs, the Lily-White hand represented the imminent occurrence of dramatic action including rape or seduction as evident in Prince Heathen and Katherine Jaffray involving rape and torture and rescue respectively. Other formulas used in ballads include dressing in rich attire, where to get a bonny boy, and playing at the ball. Preserving the lyrics or keeping the Ã¢â¬Å"emotional coreÃ¢â¬ intact was important because it represented Ã¢â¬Å"time honored expressions of recurrent ballad actsÃ¢ â¬ with formulas facilitating memorization (Harris, 22). Other than localization, other forces of change that affected ballad lyrics include consciousness of class differences, increased literacy levels/education, urbanization, religion, and different social values and practices (Buchan, 236). There is a possible connection between African American spirituals and the Underground Railroad, and most of the scholars believe that a connection exists between spirituality and the Underground Railroad network. Examples of words used in the Underground Railroad network that come from spiritual texts include Ã¢â¬Å"Drinking GourdÃ¢â¬ referred to The Big Dipper whoÃ¢â¬â¢s handle pointed to the North Star symbolizing the North Start in the Bible that let the
Monday, July 22, 2019
Brand Extension Essay Brand extension is a marketing strategy according to which a company marketing a product or a service launches a new offering (product or service) that is related to the one of the existing brands of the company, but offers different benefits and/or targets a different segment. Organizations use this strategy to increase and leverage upon their brand equity. When a firm is introducing a new product, it has the following 3 choices on branding: 1. Developing a new brand for the new product 2. Using the existing brand for the new product 3. Combining the new brand and the existing brand The use of 2nd and 3rd strategy is referred to as brand extension. Brands may be classified as one of the following: Parent Brand: If an existing brand gives birth to a brand extension, it is referred to as parent brand. Sub Brand: When a new brand is combined with an existing brand, it is called as sub brand. Family Brand: If a parent brand has links with multiple brands through brand extensions then it is called as family brand. Brand Extension Dimensions There are a large number of ways in which brand extension can be accomplished. One of the vital differences is if the extension is in the same or different category of the product. Thus they can be classified as: vertical or horizontal extensions. Vertical extensions Vertical extensions refer to the introduction of a related brand in the same product category but having a different price and quality balance. Vertical extensions offer the firm a quickest way to leverage upon the core productÃ¢â¬â¢s equity. As an extension strategy, vertical extension is widely practiced in many industries. For example, within automobile industry, the various brand models attempt to offer different price-quality bundles to attract various market segments. Often a product is extended in an attempt to just gain more of the market share. Vertical extension direction New product introductions using vertical extensions can extend in 2 directions, upscale and downscale vertical extensions. The vertical brand extension is that type of new product introduction that seems to be carrying less risk and seemingly having more appeal to management. The new product which is being introduced is in the same category as the parent product; aims at a same market segment as the parent, and may or may not enjoy the same acceptance as the parent. Upscale vertical extensions Upscale extensions involve a new product introduction by the firm with higher price quality characteristics than the original product. Downscale vertical extensions It involves a new product introduction with lower price quality characteristics than the original. Downscale vertical extensions may target sampling to a new segment, and bring some gain in market share. Horizontal extensions Generally, horizontal brand extensions either use or extend an existing productÃ¢â¬â¢s name to a new product in the same product category or to a product category new to the organization. There are 2 types of horizontal extensions which differ in terms of their focus area. They are termed as line extensions and category extensions. Line Extensions All the customers differ in terms of their usage needs. The brand has to fill the market with variety of products as per the needs of the segments. If a parent brand is used to brand a new product that targets a new segment in the market within the same product category that was previously served by the parent brand, it is called as line extension. Line extension leads to the addition of a new and distinct flavour or ingredient to the category. It sometimes might also lead to a new application for the brand or an introduction of a different form or size. For example, Bisleri is the pioneering brand in category of mineral water. Originally, Bisleri started off with 1 ltr bottle. But recently, the brand has launched bottles of different sizes and quantities.
The detective genre Essay During the era of Queen Victoria, when flickering gas lamps lit the squalid streets casting an eerie shadow, a soon to be well known compilation of stories belonging to Detective genre were being published. They were the first of their kind, and were created by Arthur Conan Doyle. His stories became so well known, that soon after writing his stories, Arthur Conan Doyle was knighted by Queen Victoria herself. Doyles stories called The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, became legendary, as Doyle had created an original fictional pipe-smoking character, called Sherlock Holmes, whose job, it was to solve crimes. This was ironic at the time, due to the simple fact, an infamous murderer, Jack the Ripper, was loose on the streets of London, attacking women. He knifed and ruthlessly murdered many prostitutes. Unfortunately, the police could not catch him and their methods were seen as inefficient. Conversely, when Sherlock Holmes, surfaced in 1887 many of the Victorians fell for the fictional character, as he became the perfect detective, by cracking every case bought to him. Many believe that Sherlock Holmes was the answer to their problems as many Victorians held a deep resentment towards the police, as they did not appear to be protecting the public. The time in which Doyle published his creations was very important to his great success, as the nation was developing and many more people were soon become wealthier. Furthermore, the introduction of compulsory schooling in the 1870 meant that many people soon became literate which meant even more Victorians had a great chance to read Doyles work. Also, as for the developing middle class, they had much more leisure time and more time to read, at free libraries as they were being established in many towns and cities in Britain. This offered more reading material to entertain the Victorians. These factors help Doyles success, and so did the use of forensic science. As forensic science was only just developing, Sherlock Holmes was the first fictional detective to use methods of finger printing. This he uses on many occasions, but in The Beryl Coronet one of Doyles most famous stories, he visits the crime scene and collects a set of fingerprints off the window seal. This is ironic because the police officers, which have already investigated the crime, do not collect a set of fingerprints. Due to their lack of expertise, the police arrests Arthur Holder, ironically, their judgement is flow, and with the help of Sherlock Holmes, Arthur Holder is found to be innocent. Sherlock Holmes reassures the readers those crimes, can be solved and justice will be done. In effect this builds up the publics confidence in him. The Sherlock Holmes compilations are engaging to their audience as most of the stories include the main features necessary for detective fiction, which are: victims, suspects, villains, clues, red herrings and a detective. The detective has the most important role in the whole story, as it is him, who has to engage the readers to stay focused in the story line. In order for this to work the writer has to add mystery, confidence and intelligence to his character. Doyle in his creation of Sherlock Holmes uses his own medical knowledge and background to create such an extraordinary character like Holmes.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Models Regarding the Emergence of Bipedalism There are over ten hypotheses as to how and why bipedalism evolved in humans and when. Bipedalism evolved well before the large human brain or the development of stone tools. Bipedal specializations are found in australopithecus fossils from 4.2-3.9 million years ago. The different hypotheses are not necessarily mutually exclusive and a number of selective forces may have acted together to lead to human bipedalism. Possible reasons for the evolution of human bipedalism include freeing the hands for tool use and carrying, sexual dimorphism in food gathering, changes in climate and habitat (from jungle to savanna) and to reduce the amount of skin exposed to the tropical sun. Another explanation is the mixture of savanna and scattered forests forced the first humans to travel between clusters of trees and bipedalism offered greater efficiency for long-distance travel between these clusters than knuckle-walking quadrupedism. Step One: Tool Use Evidence for use of stone tools first came from Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania. These tools were found in the lowest levels dating to nearly 2.0 million years ago. In southern Ethiopia, stone tools dating to as early as 2.3 to 2.4 million years ago have been discovered. Someone or something has modified the. There are different kinds of tools as well. The overall evidence suggests that between 2.3 and 2.5 million years ago hominids began to use stone materials as tools. The first stone tools were probably made for two purposes: cutting something and pounding on something. Obviously you can cut and pound plant materials or use stone tools to dig for roots and such things. However, it is far more likely that some hominids began to cut hides and meat and chop on bones to extract protein rich marrow. Of all of the tools made, the most important was probably the sharp flake that provided the edge by which one could cut even the toughest hides. It is probably unfortunate that the first stone to ol tradition, the Oldowan Tool Tradition, is defined as a core-chopper tradition. Cores are the means to detach flakes and it is these that were so vital to early hominid stone tool users. Step Two: Bigger Brains About one million years ago, hominoid mammals started to exhibit rational thought, a mental process that represented an important advance over simple natural and emotional reactions. Rational thought or is the conscious ability to add sensory input with memory by the use of logical thought processes. Also, morality emerged, which was reliant on the emergence of intelligence.Modern humans (homo sapiens) appeared approximately 160,000 years ago. And until about 12,000 years ago, when agriculture developed, they lived in small groups as hunters and gatherers. They had large brains that had evolved like everything else because it gave the individual and the group, as well as the individual within the group, a competitive advantage: Language allowed better communication within the group and higher forms of thinking. The passing on of knowledge from generation to generation, culture, evolved simultaneously or sometime later. The transfer of more complex information, ideas and concepts from one individual to another, or to a group, was probably the single most advantageous evolutionary adaptation for species preservation. The advantage of learning from passed on knowledge is it allowed foresight and planning. This gave them the ability to adapt to various environments and move to the top of the food chain. With these developments, social survival skills within the group became more important, for the socially fittest produced more offspring. Hence, the larger-brain-yielding genes were more successfully passed on. Step Three: Thermoregulatory Advantages Wheelers thermoregulatory model proposes, as the selective pressure, bipedalism conferring reduction in heat gain and facilitation of heat dissipation. Bipedalism raises the mean body surface higher above the ground, where more favorable wind speeds and temperatures prevail. Greater wind flow translates to higher convective heat loss. Bipedalism reduces evaporative cooling requirements and conserves body water. Vertical orientation also minimizes direct solar exposure during the time of day when the solar radiation is most intense. This basically says that by being upright, hominids were exposed less to harmful elements yet gained the benefits of others. Step Four: Travel For Food More specific causes for the adoption of upright posture could be things such as carrying, display or warning, new feeding adaptations, tools, or a combination of these. A conservative view is that the hominid ancestor maintained the typical hominoid foraging regime in a Miocene habitat in which food was becoming more and more widely dispersed and required greater terrestrial travel to harvest. Bipedalism could easily have been the mode of terrestrial travel for this tree adapted hominoid, as it is in all of the modern species of lesser apes, since modern hominoids are equally efficient as bipeds or as quadrupeds at normal speeds. Given the added advantage of free forelimbs, bipedalism for a small hominoid seems likely. The adoption of bipedalism by a Miocene hominoid need not be taken as such an unlikely occurrence, especially given the fact that all lesser apes today are habitual bipeds and bipedalism can easily be adopted by modern chimpanzees in the wild. Step Five: Avoid Predators During the terminal phase of the Miocene era, or around five million years ago, the climate began to shift from wet subtropical to much more arid, grassland conditions. Over the next three million years, the heavy forest cover gradually died out and tree based hominid ancestors were forced down onto ground. There, they faced the most brutal lineup of predators in the world, including lions, leopards, hyenas, and possibly wild dogs in large packs. Survival in such environments is limited to either predator avoidance or running and hominids such as A.afarensis would have been vulnerable due to lack of swift movements necessary to escape predators. Bipedalism also exposed early hominids to predators by making them upright. They were forced to rely on binocular vision for predatory avoidance, but in cases where a predator was not seen, they were easy prey for ambush hunters. Also, their plant food diet increased their exposure to predators. The combination of other factors such as smalle r body size, and lack of sharp teeth or claws also increased vulnerability of hominids to this fate. Only a few fossilised examples are available; according to the taphonomic studies of Hart and Sussman(2005), 5% of A. afarensis fossils show evidence of having been eaten. Conclusion The emergence of hominids become bipedal has without question was one of the biggest factors in the development of civilization. If our early ancestors had never left the trees, we would not be where we are today, or they wouldnt have developed the way they did. By becoming bipedal it allowed them to travel greater distances and use their bodies in different ways. The bigger brain and the use of tools really allowed hominids to further the range of their existence and become more well rounded. There really cannot be enough said about the emergence of bipedalism. Civilization is directly a result of everything this ability allowed hominids to do.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The Plague Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The rats did it! Rats, almost single handedly, killed off about a third of the European population throughout the 14th and 15th centuries. Its effects on western civilization still lasts today, but for the people who lived during the plagues wish indeed that they did not. Society was depressed, the economy was struggling, food was scarce, and all of Europe was in battle. Who would want to live in these dramatic conditions? No one, and not for centuries to come. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Plague, also known as the Black Death, or the Bubonic Plague, which struck in 1346, and again in 1361-62, ravaged all of Europe to the extent of bringing gruesome death to millions people of the Middle Ages. It was a combination of bubonic, septicemia, and pneumonic plague strains that started in the east and worked itÃ¢â¬â¢s way west, but never left its native home. One of the things that made the plague one of the worst was that there were outbreaks almost every ten years but still restricted to Europe. It is thought that one third to one half of the population in Europe could have possibly died due to the plague with some towns of a death rate of up to 30 or 40 percent. Very few that were infected with the plague actually survived more than one month after receiving the disease. The Black Death was an incredible event that effected everyone on a physical level, emotional level, or both. The Black Death was more terrible, and killed more people than any war in history. The plague was so horrible and terrifying that people said it made all other disasters in the Middle Ages seem like a walk in the park when compared it to the Black Death. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The infested rat, called the black ship rat, was carried in the baggage of merchants on board ships traveling all over the Mediterranean. They didn't know it, but It was the people that actually spread the disease across the land. The plague spread in a great arc across Europe, starting in the east in the Mediterranean Sea, and ending up in Germany. It is incredible that the plague hit Europe several times, but still no one understood neither the causes nor the treatments of the epidemic. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Although the Black Death was one of the largest epidemics ever recorded, it did not have many visible symptoms. The actual symptoms varied i... ...e seen along with the cathedrals started in the 12th and 13th centuries and never finished because of the plague. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The effects on the future were not as bad as the effects the 14th century people experienced. After the plague had set in on Europe and took its toll the people began to stop writing and in turn stop reading. The citizens became illiterate and showed no real interest in the arts. The European population steadily declined after 1350 for the next century. In 1351, it was calculated that the total number of dead in Europe was approximately twenty-four million people. That is a great decrease considering that there was an estimated seventy-five million people living in Europe before the Black Death struck. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Plague certainly had one of the greatest effects on the world in all areas, and was also one of the greatest displays of human suffering ever. The Plague caused the people of western civilization to lose family, food, society, and basic fundamentals of living. It seems that bad or depressing situations give us a grasp on what is really important in our daily lives, and that is what we all need.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Throughout The Pearl, by John Steinbeck, the themes of greed and prejudice are greatly expressed, from the beginning with the unjust doctor to the suspenseful end of the supposed Ã¢â¬ËPearl of the World.Ã¢â¬â¢ It is amazing, that even in a timeless story as this one, these harsh realities still haunt their world. It could take place yesterday, today, or tomorrow, but the point is that one cannot revert the world to one way of thinking, that is why greed and prejudice still exist. One can try as hard as they want but there are going to be those who are stubborn, of hard will, and those who believe their thoughts are right. I want to show that these themes go far beyond this parable and apply to the world we live in. Those who are prejudice exist around the world; there are those whom think higher of themselves, those whom think lower of others. It could be a small subconscious thought incriminating another peer at school of being a nerd because they are studious or carry other traits one would associate with this word; this, something as small as this, is prejudice. There are those who walk ...
Harry Potter A young, scrawny boy who wears horn-rimmed glasses and has a scar on his forehead has catapulted into the hearts of millions of readers, young and old alike. This same boy has generated nationwide controversy over censorship versus freedom of speech. In particular, the community of Zeeland, Michigan has banned reading aloud from Harry Potter and required written parental permission to check the book out from the school library. Although the Zeeland community as well as other segments of the population claim that the Harry Potter books should be censored because they believe wizardry is a dark and malignant reality, Harry Potter should be made available to all children because he reinforces a sense of good and evil, provides a protagonist that embodies Christian values, and nurtures a lifelong love for literature. Millions of children around the world along with a good many adults are now familiar with Harry Potter. Created by J.K. Rowling, Harry Potter is an orphan who, for the first eleven years of his life, has lived with and suffered abuse from his relatives, the Dursleys. His life changes dramatically, however, when he turns eleven and finds out that he is in fact a wizard and will be attending Hogwarts, a wizardry school. Adventures abound as Harry begins his new life learning to be a wizard. The Harry Potter books, four of which have been published, with another three planned, are so hugely popular that the New York Times Book Review was forced to revise their best-seller list in order to appease publishers and authors of adult material. Because the first Harry book dominated the best-seller list since its inception in 1998, children's books must now appear only on t... ...Search. Goshen College Good Library. 15 March 2001. "Letters to the Editor." Horn Book Magazine Oct. 2000: 499. Academic Search Elite. Palni Site Search. Goshen College Good Library. 15 March 2001. Maudlin, Michael G. "Virtue on a Broomstick." Christianity Today 4 Sept. 2000: 117. Academic Search Elite. Palni Site Search. Goshen College Good Library. 15 March 2001. Samuels, Art. "Pooh-poohing Pottermania." U.S. News & World Report 24 July 2000: 12. Academic Search Elite. Palni Site Search. Goshen College Good Library. 19 March 2001. Swartz, Elizabeth. "Wild About Harry (Potter)!." Teaching PreK-8 31.1 (2000): 76. Academic Search Elite. Palni Site Search. Goshen College Good Library. 15 March 2001. "Tale of Two Wizards." Reading Today 18.3 (2001): 15. Academic Search Elite. Palni Site Search. Goshen College Good Library. 19 March 2001. <![endif]>