Saturday, December 28, 2019
All Americans know and believe in freedom for all, but when put into perspective, are we really free? We have the freedom to go where we want, choose what we desire, and do what we please, as long as we stay within the limited freedoms given to us by society. The question arises, are these restrictions necessary? Jean-Jacques Rousseau once stated in The Social Contract, Ã¢â¬Å"Man is born free, but is everywhere in chainsÃ¢â¬ I happen to agree with that statement, that people are given freedom from birth, but are restricted by the rules of todays beliefs. However I do not believe it is the right thing for society to do, and neither does the main character, Wade Watts, in Ernest ClineÃ¢â¬â¢s dystopian novel Ready Player One. This quote can also beÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This leads to users around of the world rebelling against The IOI. This relationship shows the stark contrast between how a freedom confined world and freedom filled world function together. In The Necklace, the setting of Paris in the late 19th century is a world of elegance and wealth. If not born into a wealthy family, one would have two options: marry into a wealthy family, or stay in their social class. That is just the case for Mathilde Loisel, who is endowed with beauty but born into a family of clerks. She was born free and could have had a plentiful life because of her beauty. However, she was held back by the chains of her social status and forced to marry her wealthy husband Monsieur Loisel. Together they have an awkward relationship consisting only of their need for marriage. Monsieur Loisel and Mathilde Loisel have little interaction physically within the story, however their relationship can be described through their dialogue. Monsieur Loisel often sees MathildeÃ¢â¬â¢s bodily expressions and attempts to make conversation. This usually ends in Mathilde ranting about her envies and Ã¢â¬Å"needsÃ¢â¬ . Monsieur Loisel ends up trying to buy her happiness, but nothing is ever enough for her. Her social class is holding her back from happiness, and nothing he can say or buy fills the gap that she has for joy. The only visible moment of happiness we see of her is during the
Friday, December 20, 2019
The knightly code of chivalry value honesty, honor, valor, and loyalty; however, each era adapt and manipulate the code. The dark ages of King Arthur adopted the code along with the conduct aligned with the Christian religion. Knightly chivalry is means to fear God serve, pledge your loyalty to their lord, live honorable, tell the truth, respect women, never refuse a challenge, eschew unfairness, meanness, and deceit, protect the weak and defenseless, and it goes on (Alchin). The reality of true knightly hood is impossible. You cannot successfully abide by them all without breaking one. The duty of the knight is a task of utter perfection. The knight has a responsibility to protect all, but it is depicted time after time in all forms of media of those who value riches and power. Sir Gawain of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is about a knight of King Arthur usually fabled in many stories of the times. Sir Gawain in this version is well known throughout many Arthurian stories for his loyalty, humility, and chivalrousness. In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, these qualities are clearly manifested as Gawain undergoes many trials which put his character to the test, for he is knightly, to a fault. During this time period it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t easy to disobey this code. The medieval period the Lord of the land is supreme rule. The Lord are their providers, so you cannot bite the hand that feeds you. Gawain is a knight who values loyalty above all. Sir GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s tale begins withShow MoreRelatedSir Gawain And The Green Knight Code Analysis824 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesKnight, Sir Gawain obeys a code of knightly conduct that revolves around a few key principles. Today, these principles do not carry the same importance and influence as they did in 14th century Middle England. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a chivalric romance story, representing the importance of the chivalric code. Sir Gawain always keeps his promises, obeys his lord, and enters combat to uphold his reputation of bravery. These comprise part of the code of chivalry, the principle of utmost importanceRead MoreChanges to Knighthood throughout the Years942 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesadvanced instructions in military subjects and morals. The original medieval nights were originally servants who kept their lords lands after they served in their lords armies. With time christian values were added to knighthood Ã¢â¬Å"involving respect for the church, protection of the poor and the weak, loyalty to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s feudal or military superiors, and preservation of personal honourÃ¢â¬ (Knight 3). These became known as the knights orders they followed to achieve greatness. The first recognized
Thursday, December 12, 2019
Question: Discuss about theGenomic Disease Resistance to Late Blight of Tomato. Answer: Tomato or Solanum lycopersicum is a very vital vegetable crop in the world. According to the recent estimation, about 4.6 million ha of tomatoes are grown per year around the world, producing over 126million mt (Straquadine, Baig and Mukhtar 2017). Apart from being the second most important vegetable crop, tomatoes are also considered as a model species of plant for many of the genetic studies associated with stress tolerance, fruit quality or several other psychological traits. Furthermore, to meet with the demands for tomatoes, they are also grown in the greenhouse. Due to great economic contribution of tomatoes in the field of agriculture, there is plentiful interest in making use of the genomic tools in order to ameliorate the tomato and grow more new varieties of it. May times, the production of tomatoes are hindered by several fungal diseases such as late blight, fusarium wilt, early blight, verticilium wilt, septoria leaf spot, etc (Ohara et al. 2015). Among all; the late blight is the most critical one. It is one of the most vital foliar fungal disease in tomatoes. It is the same fungus, which created the destructive loss of potatoes in the year 1845 in Europe. It limits the tomato production. Late blight of tomato is considered as one of the most infamous diseases in the field of agriculture (Jung et al. 2015). It is acclaimed as the root of the famous Irish potato famine of the mid nineteenth century that has resulted in the demise of more than two million people in Ireland. The disease in fact spurred the exposure of the study of plant pathology. During his studies to understand the root cause of late blight, Anton deBary, the botanist demonstrated that a fungal-like growth on the blighted plants was the reason behind it. This had led other scientists and botanists to investigate on other bacteria and fungi that were related to plant diseases and along with the expansion of the Kochs postulates for initiating pathogenicity, causal pathogens of several plant diseases have been identified. The late blight is originated by oomycete pathogen called the Phytophthora infestans (Zuluaga et al. 2016). It in fact is fundamentally a pathogen of tomatoes and potatoes. However, it has also been known to infect the other adherents of the plant family of Solanaceae. It is also significant for having both sexual and asexual life. However, the disease is also referred to as community disease as it has the ability to circulate or spread speedily from one field to another under right weather conditions. It is mostly favored by humid, foggy or raining conditions and cool temperature. It quickly ruins the entire crop and supplies a good source of infections for the other plants. Hence, it is very important for the gardeners to understand the fact that the disease of tomato late blight is not like the other usual tomato diseases. The other diseases causes very limited damage but Late blight in fact, kills the plants completely and is highly infectious and communicable. Late blight is one of the known destructive diseases of tomatoes in the world. Because of the emergence of the very new and aggressive isolates of Phytophthora infestans, identification of new genomic diseases resistance to Late Blight is a top most priority in breeding of tomatoes. The term phytophthora is a Latin term, which means plant destroyer (Lazebnik et al. 2017). The tissues of the infected plants die and the outbreak grow and spread rapidly as the pathogen has the ability to produce a large number of wind-dispersed spores. If once a plant gets infected, it is bound to destroy. Its occurrence in a garden may even affect the other gardens as well and this is due to wind dispersion of the spores. From the popular Irish famine, there has been a high amount interest of the researchers in the disease of late blight. At first, it they studied the affect of the same in potatoes but later the study was held in tomatoes as well. The three major genetic disease resistances against LB include Ph-1, Ph-2 and the Ph-3 (Luan et al. 2018). These resistances have been charted to the tomato chromosomes 7, 10 and 9 respectively. The Ph-1 is a single dominant gene that provides resistance in order to trace the race T-0, but it was speedily mastered by the new races of pathogen. It was portrayed to the very distant end of the chromosome 7 by making use of morphological markers but it has been reported that there was no molecular marker that was related with this resistance gene. The Ph-2 on the other hand is a single insufficient-dominant gene that was portrayed to the very lower end of the prolonged arm of the tomato chromosome 10. It supplies limited resistance to various isolates of the rac e T-1. Ph-3 was primarily discovered in the accessions of S. pimpinellifolium- L3708 and L3707 in Taiwan (Siedl Johnson, Jordan and Gevens 2014). At present, Ph-3 is the most useful among the three major genetic disease resistances. It benefits insufficient dominant resistance against wide array of Phytophthora infestans tomato isolates including the ones that overcomes both Ph-1 and Ph-2. It has been portrayed to the very lower end of the prolonged arm of the tomato chromosome 9 and near the RFLP marker- TG591. Ph-3 has been portrayed in the 0.5cM genomic area of the long arm of chromosome 9 in between the P55 and Indel_3 molecular markers. In addition to these, there are several reports on the quantitative resistance to the late blight as well as the QTLs (Quantitative trait loci) that are related to it. In a study, the reciprocal backcross (BC) populations that are derived from the Solanum habrochaites x Solanum lycopersicum were evaluated by using three kinds of copied disease essays i.e. whole-plant, field and detached-leaflet (Haggard, Johnson and Clair 2015). The linkage maps were developed for each of the BC population by making use of RFLPS. The resistance QTLs was spotted on all of the twelve tomato chromosomes by using interval mapping. Someof the Phytophthora infestansresistance QTLs were identified in the tomato tallied with the chromosomal locations of earlier charted QTLs and the R genes in potato for resistance toPhytophthora infestans, which suggests functional conservation of the resistance in theSolanaceae. Tomato is the one of the most consumed vegetable crops in the world but the emergence of the late blight is considerably limiting its production worldwide. The QTL analysis and the molecular markers analysis works that are executed so far has been very competent for detecting the resistance gene or genes on the genome of the tomatoes and to accomplish marker-assisted choice for few fungus related diseases. As the whole genome succession of tomato is available now, it will be very useful for advancing the molecular breeding through smoothing the positional cloning and marker-assisted selection. References: Haggard, J.E., Johnson, E.B. and Clair, D.A.S., 2015. Multiple QTL for horticultural traits and quantitative resistance to Phytophthora infestans linked on Solanum habrochaites chromosome 11.G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics,5(2), pp.219-233. Jung, J., Kim, H.J., Lee, J.M., Oh, C.S., Lee, H.J. and Yeam, I., 2015. Gene-based molecular marker system for multiple disease resistances in tomato against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, late blight, and verticillium wilt.Euphytica,205(2), pp.599-613. Lazebnik, J., Tibboel, M., Dicke, M. and Loon, J.J., 2017. Inoculation of susceptible and resistant potato plants with the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans: effects on an aphid and its parasitoid.Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata,163(3), pp.305-314. Luan, Y., Cui, J., Li, J., Jiang, N., Liu, P. and Meng, J., 2018. Effective enhancement of resistance to Phytophthora infestans by overexpression of miR172a and b in Solanum lycopersicum.Planta,247(1), pp.127-138. Ohara, T., Ishida, Y., Kudou, R., Kakibuchi, K., Akimitsu, K., Izumori, K. and Tajima, S., Kagawa University and Mitsui Agro Chemicals Inc, 2015.Plant disease control agent comprising D-tagatose as active ingredient, and plant disease control method. U.S. Patent 9,125,409. Seidl Johnson, A.C., Jordan, S.A. and Gevens, A.J., 2014. Novel resistance in heirloom tomatoes and effectiveness of resistance in hybrids to Phytophthora infestans US-22, US-23, and US-24 clonal lineages.Plant Disease,98(6), pp.761-765. Straquadine, G.S., Baig, M.B. and Mukhtar, M., 2017. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences.Journal of Experimental Biology. Zuluaga, A.P., Vega?Arregun, J.C., Fei, Z., Matas, A.J., Patev, S., Fry, W.E. and Rose, J.K., 2016. Analysis of the tomato leaf transcriptome during successive hemibiotrophic stages of a compatible interaction with the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans.Molecular plant pathology,17(1), pp.42-54.
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question : A presentation covering the following points should be prepared: Provide a brief introduction to the organisation (it is acceptable to withhold the name of the organisation). 1. Describe the problem, as much as possible in terms of the observable or measurable symptoms it manifests, for example: employee unrest, frequent industrial action, high absenteeism, workplace bullying/harassment, low morale, loss of profit, sabotage etc. 2. The issue/problem should then be considered and analysed in terms of concepts/models/theories drawn from any two topics studied as part of this subject. To give some examples, your group may choose to adopt different negotiation tactics, change the existing recruitment and selection method, or re-design jobs, or arrange special training program and so on. Try to choose the topic that seems to offer the most useful insights into the problem. Topics must be taken from HRM course. 3. Design a change program or set of activities and procedures utilising some a spect or aspects of your analysis (actual action plan). The change program should beintended to solve or improve the situation. Answer : Introduction The British Airways (BA) is mainly comprised of British Airways Plc and other subsidiaries such as the British Airways Holidays Limited. At present, it is one of the leading airlines with a massive network across the globe. BA is catering to the needs of passengers and freight services in more than 72 countries through 149 destinations. The airlines carried up to 70 million passengers and almost 2000,000 tonnes of cargo. The UK based airline network recruits up to 85% of its employees from its own country. Details of the Cabin Crew Strike at British Airways An industrial dispute broke out in the spring of 2010 between the airlines and Unite. The latter is UK general union comprising more than two million members. Apart from the employers and employees, this dispute also involved political parties, media, government and the customers. Till today these strikes have been a concern for the company and is currently dealt by its management. An effective solution for the same has not been settled but the magnitude and occurrences of these strikes has reduced considerably. The review below shows an analysis of how the entire story started and how it has been going on till today. The British Airways has 13500 flight attendants out of which 12000 are Unite members. A whopping 81% of the cabin crew staff who were the members of Bassa, Unites cabin crew branch voted for industrial action. It occurred in February 2010 to oppose the proposed staffing cuts and change of working conditions. This entails a former ballot towards the end of 2009 that advocated 12 days of strike action. It was challenged by BA in the high court that granted the request for an injunction against this strike. It was based on a balloting error that violated the Trade Union Act of 1992 (The Guardian 2014). The mentioned ballot was basically a reply to the unilateral decision of the airline in reducing cabin crew by one person on long haul flights. It was to lower down costs based on a last year pre tax loss of 401 million. Unite replied to cabin crew with the claim that such ruling marks that extent to which law is used against the interests of the working population. It shows how a determined employer with limitless resources frustrates your actual right by withdrawing labour at the last moment in an effort to make sure your voice is heard. Despite large scale negotiations, no further progress touched the ballot in Feb 2010 for resolving such disputes (The guardian 2010). Analysing the key issues and fallout of the strike During March 2010, seven days of strike action occurred during two different occasions. The airline responded by taking a number of steps. Firstly, it withdrew the perks of discounted travel for air stewards that were a substantial benefit. Secondly, cabin crew from different airlines, used volunteer crew and chartered jet were borrowed. Some of BA pilots substituted for the striking cabin crew. After such actions, BA reported of the bill likely to be 45 due to the strike action. There also reports of carrying up to almost 400,000 less passengers compared to a year ago during same period which shows a decline of 15%. Another airline Ryanair reported a rise of 23%. BA hired planes and crew staff from rivals for operating 79% of long haul flight schedule and 58% of short haul trips during the seven days strike period (BBC 2011). The main cause of the dispute is related to the managements efforts in lowering the operating costs. It is due to fall in demand, rising competition and increasing non labour charges such as fuel prices. Labour costs form a major cost in the airline industry and is one of the key reasons for making profit. The cabin crew forms the biggest part of the workforce. For lowering the cabin crew costs by up to 140 m annually, BA management suggests on employing newer crew on minimal favourable terms and conditions. Theyll be on a separate fleet freed from costly and unaccommodating demarcation lying between cabin crew hired for short haul and long haul services. Reportedly, Unite grew insecure that new workers would be excluded from collective bargaining with existing employers. Thus, the workforce could be divided despite the permission to join the union. Theyve also suspected the new workforce of facilitating the integration of low paid workers, work intensification. There was also an insecurity that new fleet is a plan to occupy the best profitable routes for marginalizing existing workforce (Afed 2010). Even though these plans could be significant for workers, Unite wont participate in discussions on new fleet suggestions. This is due to fears of pre emptive strike likely to be inducted and serve a basis for legal action by the airline. BA also made further proposals for cutting down the operation costs. It includes doing away with seniority mechanism of promotion and reshuffle of cabin crew functionality. They also have plans to bring payment structure in line with their competitors who as per reports pay cabin crew less than BA (Eprints 2011). The claims and counter claims on the result of the strike action stood as a distinctive feature of the dispute. For example, BA had claims of support weakening for supposed industrial action. It was based on their observation that during the second of these two strikes, more of the cabin crew was busy working and more flights were also operating. Chief Executive of BA, Willie Walsh claimed that the airline had over 60,000 passengers across 470 flights on Saturday during the second strike. On previous Saturday, the numbers were 43,000 on 350 flights. Len McCluskey responded to such claims marking them a grand con trick of British Airways. He further said that BA is making these claims after spending millions of pounds bay dumping passengers on other carriers. Passengers expecting to go on their trustworthy BA airline will be transferred to carriers theyve probably never heard of. Theyll be serviced by a group of low graded pilots and managers pretending to be a crew. BA inflicts a trash on its brand in its desperation to divide the workforce, expressed McCluskey (Constant Contact 2011). The media has played a role here in structuring mass opinion. It has acted as an outlet where these claims and leaks of confidential information were pitched to solidify the position of respective parties. This strike also received the attention from the political quarters. It took place in a run to a general election in UK where Conservative Party chief David Cameroon attempted to gain political mileage. He expressed that PM Gordon Brown has displayed a weak point in his attitude to deal with a dispute. It is a failure to come in the aid of the non strikers and supporting the unions (WSWS 2010). Brown responded by calling the strike as deplorable and unjustifiable. He observed it not in the interest of the masses and urged to call off proposed strike action. As per some reports, the government was also afraid of the political consequences springing from this industrial action and their impact on election results. This was particularly with reference to the climate of rising unemployment .The vulnerability of job losses was clouding the public sector during the subsequent months. Due to these conditions, Brown had been reportedly desperate in his attempts to settle the dispute. An intriguing build up to the dispute was the claims of certain commentators. They said that the plans of the airlines management in terms of second fleet, responding to strike and approach to further negotiations lead to a planned effort to divide Unite by macho management. It was seeking to dissolve the strength of the union which has been a feature of fraught history of industrial relations in BA (Reuters 2010). BA was particularly accused of being forcefully intervening in their refusal to restore pre-strike peace offer. Unite said that it could have been forming the basis of a deal to finish the dispute but they provided a worse offer in order to regain the money lost in dispute by the new revised deal. According to BA, these claims are unacceptable. They are of the belief that Unite and their cabin crew branches had many opportunities to reach an agreement on cost reducing programme. Unnecessarily, theyve opted to pursue strike actions, said BA. Unite floated warnings that the clash was watering the seed of a lengthy internal conflict in British Airways. After the settlement of the recent dispute, Unite expressed that a sense of mistrust and ill feeling will penetrate within the management, their members and within the employees. Similarly, it will also take place between the strikers and the ones who decided to pass the picket lines. This will also not spare the pilots who were filling in as the cabin crew during the industrial strike (Daily Mail 2010). Change Program or a set of activities to fight the Cabin Crew dispute In order to deal with this problem, the management has deployed several policies and underwent through various changes as per mutual agreed standards between the management and the cabin crew members. In order to ensure that the company does not get into similar problems in future, some of the possible recommendations to be abided by would include: Involve Cabin Crew in the decision making process: Management of British Airways has many a times been criticized for their rigid stand against the policies and implementation of changes without the consent of their employees. In order to ensure that they do not face stiff opposition to any changes which they wish to implement within the organization, the airline would need to take the cabin crew on board. Giving importance to the cabin crew and getting them in confidence for the decisions the management proposes would be very important (Socialist Party 2010). Empathy: British Airways would need its management to consider the qualities which make great executives and have the characteristics of being aggressive, tenacious personality which can create resolutions to all the labour disputes. It would need to create an environment where the cabin crew members are given the confidence that the management cares for their causes and addresses them with prime importance. Empathy can serve as a great touch for preventing strikes and the trained mediators would serve the organization well. Conclusion After evaluating the case of British Airways and the cabin crew strikes which had been a concern for the airline for many years now, it is well understandable that labour relations are a critical element for profitability of an organization. If organizations do not pay heeds to worker interest and try to enforce their decisions, it is more than likely to impact their progress and business efficiency. Further, British Airways seems to have responded in a stronger manner and has better measures in place today. The rate of such unrest have been brought down to the minimum and the company is constantly working on ensuring that such situations do not arise again. References The Guardian 2014, British Airways Strike Action Threat Pay Claim, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/jun/22/british-airways-strike-action-threat-pay-claim-ba The guardian 2010, British Airways Cabin Crew Strike, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.theguardian.com/business/2010/mar/20/british-airways-cabin-crew-strike BBC 2011, British Airways cabin crew vote to strike again, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-12882499 Afed 2010, BA Cabin Crew Strike Again, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.afed.org.uk/res/resist123.pdf Eprints 2011, Creating a Sustainable Work Environment in British Airways: Implications of the 2010 Cabin Crew Dispute retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/6144/1/Upchurc-Creating_a_Sustainable_Work_Environment_in_British_AirwaysFINAL.pdf Constant Contact 2011, Working Together A Joint Settlement Between British Airways and Unite the Union, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://library.constantcontact.com/download/get/file/1103933565912-9/Final+Joint+Agreed+Settlement+Stoke+Place+110511.pdf WSWS 2010, High court outlaws strike at British Airways, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2010/05/brit-m19.html Reuters 2010, British Airways battles cabin crew strike, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.reuters.com/article/2010/03/20/us-ba-strike-idUSTRE62J01E20100320 Daily Mail 2010, BA suspends union militants for Facebook and email 'intimidation' of strike-breaking pilots, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1250377/BA-suspends-union-militants-strike-intimidation.html Socialist Party 2010, The truth behind the British Airways cabin crew strike, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/9006/12-03-2010/the-truth-behind-the-british-airways-cabin-crew-strike
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Enzyme Catalase Paper Enzymes are proteins that function as biological catalysts (Perry, Morton 2007). They maintain the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s stable internal balance, and without them life would be impossible (Sullivan, 2013). Enzymes are capable of speeding up reactions that otherwise would happen at a slower rate. Even though we have hundreds of different enzymes in our cells, each enzyme is specific for one particular reaction that occurs in the cell (Fuentes, 2011). A catalyst is responsible for lowering the amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur. The activation energy is then lowered enough to the affect called a molehill. In an enzyme-catalyzed reaction the substrate, which is the substance being reacted upon, is the reactant (Perry, Morton 2007). The substrate only fits in a specific active site, and is later broken down by the enzyme (Lab Report). Enzyme molecules and substrate molecules merge together to form an enzyme-substrate complex, however this is only temporary. Once the molecules are bound the enzyme-substrate complex changes shape slightly. This allows the chemical reaction to process faster. The molecule is then released unchanged and is capable of catalyzing the same reaction over and over (Perry, Morton 2007). Catalase is a specific enzyme that is found in many animal and plant tissues (Sullivan, 2013). It is used to speed up reactions that break down hydrogen peroxide. For example, the enzyme is catalase and the substrate is hydrogen peroxide (Lab Report). We will write a custom essay sample on Enzyme Catalase specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Enzyme Catalase specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Enzyme Catalase specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Hydrogen peroxide is a byproduct of numerous cellular reactions that happen in our body, however this byproduct is very toxic to our cells. When catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide it is converted into two harmless substances, water and oxygen (Fuentes, 2011). The purpose of this study is to test certain factors, and how they affect the rate of the reaction that it catalyzes. The test factors include: substrate concentration, pH, and temperature.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
How to gain experience without experience 7 ways to land your dream job If you currently have the day job that pays the bills but isnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite building towards your career goals, or you want to switch career tracks, then you have to be smart about collecting the skills you need to bolster your resume. Beyond the day job, there are ways to demonstrate and build the skills that will look good to future employers and prove your worth in a new position. It may take a little bit of hustle and some extra unpaid labor, but it can pay off in the long run. 8 ways to gain skills to get the job you want1. Target the entry-level positionFirst, you need to research the skills you need. Figure out the places where you find yourself saying, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢d love to work there, if onlyÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢d love to do this, but first I need toÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Find out specifics. What are the skills emphasized in these job ads? What skills do you currently have that are transferrable? Then, work from there. Setting your sights on an entry-level job in your preferred industry while building the skills required for the dream job are a winning combo.2. Take classesMost importantly, you want to figure out ways you can build these skills beyond the traditional workplace setting. Building skills through small certificate programs or local or online classes are a good way to learn and demonstrate your abilities. Taking classes can also show your motivation to prospective employers.Online courses are a convenient way to build your skills or interests on your own time. Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a Google Analytics certificate, or a continuing studies course in graphic design at your local art school, you can find low-cost ways to build your skills in a new area.3. Take on self-motivated projectsDid you take that class in graphic design? Great. Now make a website of your sample work. Gather a portfolio. Take the knowledge you have and translate it into action. This extra step can lead to a showcase of your skills and work beyond a line on a resume, and it demonstrates to future employers your ability to take initiative.4. Build your online presenceBeyond a website, there are a number of social media platforms available to keep you informed on your industry of choice and help you interact with that industry. Ã¢â¬Å"LikingÃ¢â¬ an organization on social media and staying up-to-date is the first step. In addition to following any appropriate feeds, you can build your own presence surrounding that field, while developing your knowledge. For example, if you want to work in a museum, follow art news feeds and link to articles you find interesting. A lot more employers are looking at prospective employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ social media, so let that be a plus for you.Beyond these basics of staying on top of industry trends, you can build your own stories on YouTube, Snapchat, Instagram, Twitter, or your platform of choice. Investing the time to engage with your industry will keep you informed of opportunities available and the skills you need to get the position you want.5. Consider a side gigPart-time work or freelance work is a great way to get your foot in the door for a new position. It likely wonÃ¢â¬â¢t come with benefits, but it can help you develop skills and experience in a new area as a stepping stone toward a full-time position. These smaller side gigs can help bolster your resume with smaller projects related to your desired in dustry.6. Explore internship opportunitiesWhile an internship often requires a bigger (and often unpaid) commitment than a side gig, getting one at an organization can often lead to longer-term work. Helping with a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s odds and ends can also really show you an insiderÃ¢â¬â¢s view of the industry and what it is like working at a particular organization.7. VolunteerWhether itÃ¢â¬â¢s working on a political campaign, for a local environmental humanitarian organization, at a neighborhood food bank, or anywhere else that needs a helping hand, volunteering can demonstrate your passion and commitment to more than just your own personal goals. Employers also often value soft skills like collaboration, so you can let your volunteer work speak to that side of your merit.You can also gain job skills in whatever aspect of the work you do on a voluntary basis. If you want to work in marketing, for example, volunteering to assist on a marketing department campaign at a service or ganization can help you gain necessary skills and insight and help you land your next job.8. Find opportunities at workThe easiest way to go about gaining skills is to look at the place that already pays you to do work. Find projects within your current job that can support a career move and help you build new skills- whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s simply offering help on a project for a colleague or directly asking your superiors for opportunities. You can slowly gain experience that will expand your resume and still get paid to do it. Get an idea, take some initiative, and go for it.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Tragic Flaw in Sophocles' Oedipus the King - Essay Example That way the audience can experience a proper moral fear that badness always brings forth bad result. In the case of SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Oedipus the KingÃ¢â¬ , the character that passes out as Ã¢â¬Å"tragic flawÃ¢â¬ in the Oedipus is no doubt his pride and arrogance. In this paper we will be looking at the principle of Ã¢â¬Å"tragic flawÃ¢â¬ as postulated by Aristotle in the context of SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ play Ã¢â¬Å"Oedipus the KingÃ¢â¬ . The idea of tragic flaw that became synonymous to Greek tragedy was postulated by Aristotle, which might explain why this principle featured prominently in almost all his poetics. Tragic flaw basically describes a hero in a story making some fundamental mistakes that are mostly triggered by pride or hubris, which forms his main flaw in an otherwise perfect character, thereby marking his downfall. There is strong evidence to suggest that the development of the principle of tragic flaw was informed by the need to respond to the principle of tragedy which despite dominating Greek plays for so long was being challenged by the likes of Plato on moral grounds. In this regard, the principle of tragedy was attacked ostensibly for corrupting the audience by alluding to the futility of being virtuous. According to Plato, tragedy corrupts the audience by showing good and virtuous people perishing instead of emerging triumphant. It is, therefore, extremely disheartening to see them falling by the wayside primarily because of their virtues and goodness. It was in response to this challenge that Aristotle decided to add some flaw to an otherwise heroic character so as to explain his downfall on moral ground. By so doing Aristotle had offered a solution to the principle of tragedy as presented by Plato and other Greek writers and playwrights. In the play the Oedipus the King Oedipus commits a number of mistakes that can be blamed on his pride, which forms the tragic flaw in his character. One of such mistakes is his impatience with Creon after embarking in a journey to ApolloÃ¢â¬â¢s temple to plead with him to save the city of Thebes from the plague that has destroyed crops and livestock while rendering women sterile. After the arrival of Creon from ApolloÃ¢â¬â¢s temple we see Oedipus commanding Creon to tell him what Apollo has to say concerning the plague despite CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s protestation on spilling the information in front of his subjects. This offer from Creon to do it in private should have awaken Oedipus to the reality that whatever he was about to hear was not good to be spilt in the midst of his subjects. However, in total disregard of CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s advice he stood his ground and received the information in the presence of his subject, something that smirk of extreme pride. A careful analysis of the play will show a keen reader that this is a dangerous mistake that Oedipus has made because the answer that comes from Creon set the stage for his downfall. It is also important to note that ha d he agreed to receive the message from Apollo in private, things would not have gone out of hand as they eventually did. King Oedipus curiosity for truth is arguably the worst trait that contributes to his downfall in this play. If only he had decided to forget about where he came from and concentrated on resolving issues surrounding the plague, then
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Critical analysis - Essay Example The O- ring seal let gases emanating from the so rocket booster. These gases lay on the propellant tank which is outside and also the booster strut. This took place in January 28 1986. The remains of the shuttle fell into the Atlantic Ocean just off FloridaÃ¢â¬â¢s cost. The compartment where the crew was together with fragment of the space shuttle was only recovered after a long search of the ocean was conducted. When exactly the crew passed away is unknown but it is believed that a number survived when the space craft initially broke up. The only problem for those who survived was the fact that the shuttle lacked a means of escape .It is for this reason that they were captive in the space shuttle as it impacted with the ocean surface .This was too violent for any of them to survive. The shuttle space program was halted for 32 months due to the disaster. The Rogers commission was formed by the then president Ronald Regan. The commission laid blame on NASAÃ¢â¬â¢S decision making s ystem and and its organizational culture for the disaster. NASA was aware that the design of the Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SBRs) by Morton Thiokol had a lethal defect in the O-rings .This hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been addressed since 1977.They also failed to head to warnings from engineers concerning the launch in the prevailing low temperature that fateful morning. These technical concerns werenÃ¢â¬â¢t shared with the superiors. It is interesting to note the vehicle never received certification to run in the low temperatures of that morning The O- ring together with other key components hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been tested to ensure that they would operate in the launch conditions of that morning. The launch had many viewers since it had Christa McAuliffe .She was to be the first teacher, female, in space .So hyped was the launch that just an hour after the Disaster 85% of Americans had gotten wind of the news .It is worth noting that the challengers disaster was a reference point when it comes t o issues of engineering safety and ethics in the work place. The concerns about the O-Ring A look at the space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters Design (SRBS) will help us understand where the flaw lay. To begin with this unit makes part of the vehicle for space transportation system. It is made up of six sections connected in 3 factory and field joints. Factory joints had an insulation made up of asbestos-silica .This was applied at the joints to cover them. The field joints were assembled at the Kennedy space centre in the building used for vehicle Assembly .The field joints relied on two O-rings made of rubber .There was a primary one and a secondary one which acted as a backup. After the disaster, field joints adopted a 3 O-ring system. All the SRB joint seals were to contain high pressure gasses resultant from the combustion of the solid propellant that lay within. All the propellant is supposed to emanate from the nozzle at the end of the rocket. At the time of the shuttle design, a Mc Donnell Douglass report highlighted the record of solid rockets when it came to safety .It was safe to abort in most failure types. There was one though in which aborting would have been dangerous. Hot gasses would burn through the forced casing. If the burn through was to take place next the liquid hydrogen/oxygen tank, aborting a launch
Monday, November 18, 2019
Consumer Behavior - Essay Example This entire process is usually known as the decision-making procedure of the consumers. These particular activities Ã¢â¬â parts of the decision-making of the customers Ã¢â¬â are influenced by various factors that include cultural, social, group and personal aspects. The importance of decision-making of the customers is that it helps the consumers to identify their needs in order to fulfill their objectives (Williams, 2012). In this paper, the evaluation of the stages of the decision-making procedure that the customers go through in selecting whether to purchase the Crispy Baby Snacks product or not from the business market of Oman will be taken into concern. Moreover, the analysis of the most significant social and personal factors in relation to the purchase decision for this particular product will also be portrayed in the discussion. Critical Analysis Decision-Making Process The various stages of the decision-making procedure of the consumers include recognition of the need, gathering information about the product both internally and externally, assessing the alternatives, making purchase-related decisions, and, finally, creating post-purchase assessment (Haubl & Trifts, 2000). In relation to the initial stage of the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ decision-making procedure, it can be stated that the customers recognize their need to provide nutritional and delicious Crispy Snacks to their babies and thus start to collect information about the different snacks products which are available in the business market of Oman. This particular behavior of gathering information about the availability of the snacks products ultimately leads them to assess the other alternative products in the business market. After the evaluation of the alternative products, the consumers make the decision to purchase Crispy Baby Snacks product for their babies. In this context, it can be stated that the continuous use of the product, i.e. the Crispy Baby Snacks, ultimately leads to dissatisf action or satisfaction of the consumers about the product. This particular activity of the customers also leads to the rejection or repetitive purchase of the product by a considerable extent. The post-purchase evaluation decision stage of the consumers depends on the acceptance or the rejection of the products available in the business market of Oman. The customers are satisfied with a product only when their expectations are met. In this regard, in relation to the Crispy Baby Snacks, the various expectations of the customers include the quality, flavor, and, most importantly, the cost. While using the particular product, on the basis of the aforementioned aspects, the consumers comply with the decision-making stage of post-purchase evaluation (New Age International, n.d.). Influencing Factors Social There lie various significant factors that influence the purchase decision-making procedure of the customers. In this context, one set of the factors can be deemed as the social factor that includes the group or the social segment to which the customer belongs. The buying patterns of the customers are ultimately influenced on the basis of the aforesaid social aspects. It has been observed that the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ decision-making procedure, as regards the Crispy Baby S
Friday, November 15, 2019
Value of Reflective Practice for Skills Development Reflective practice has been defined as Involving self, a process that is undertaken in response to a positive or negative event that may be initiate consciously or subconsciously, that requires to provide an answer (Chapman, Dempsey et al. 2009). It has also been defined as Paying critical attention to the practical values and theories which inform every day actions, by examining practice reflectively and reflexively, this leads to developmental insight (Clouston, Westcott 2005). Reflective practice is a process to which a person dissects their internal reactions to certain situations, and how they dealt with the cause and effect. It is only through this reflection that an individual can comprehensively understand and learn from their previous decision making mechanisms. Reflective practice gives the opportunity for a health professional to look back at their clinical skills used in given situations, and assess how these skills could be amended to better their professional practice. It is a method of learning from experiences, using experiences to analyze why problems occurred, and then to find a solution to these problems (Taylor 2010). Reflection has been defined by Dewey (1933) as active persistent and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusion to which it tends cited by (Mann, Gordon et al. 2009). Boud (1978) reinforces Deweys assessment of reflection, however, he aligns himself with an overtly emotional assessment of personal experience. Boud defines reflection as a generic term for those intellectual and affective activities in which individuals engage to explore their experiences in order to lead to a new understanding and appreciation cited by (Mann, Gordon et al. 2009). There is a gap between academia and good professional practice. Although a student may have a very good understanding of theory, this does not necessarily teach them about good professional practice (Baird 2008). Knowledge is something that is to be challenged and reinforced. Gaining knowledge through clinical experience and reflection is key to being a reflective practitioner (Clouston, Westcott 2005). This can be obtained at university level within Radiography through clinical placement, positioning classes and a personal development system (PDS) (Baird 2008). These classes give the student an opportunity to challenge, discuss, but more importantly reflect on the theory which they have learned. It is through problem solving that a student can reach below the purely scientific understanding of processes and procedures, and can delve into the deeper, and one could argue, the more complexities of clinical practice. Through these teaching methods a student can learn that the theory of practice is not always going to work in given situations, and through reflection they can amend their knowledge to give the result of better clinical skills and professional practice (Baird 2008). It would be nieve to assume that every patient, every ailment, should reprieve a standard set method of treatment. The PDS is an online resource which provides a student with a key initial starting block to which they can build a more successful, productive, and ultimately professional methodology to explore key skill and developmental needs (Rowland 2006). A study of students found that reflective exercises proved successful, and that they thought it could be a valuable part of their professional careers within the health service. Students realised that reflective practice can help to deal with any similar issues arising (Cronin, Connolly 2007). Another study found that student nurses gained confidence in decision making through journal writing also stating that they believed more, that writing could be used to learn (Epp 2008). Both studies show that reflective practice is a beneficial tool that can be used to enhance professional practice. However the first study is seemingly over crediting the usefulness of reflective practice on a one size fits all basis. Students must not become fully dependant on the benefits which reflective practice may bring, and must leave room for ingenuity, and adapt these procedures to specific circumstances. The second study reinforces the benefits which reflective practice can bring to a students confide nce in their own professional expertise. The introduction of key performance indicators (KPI) into healthcare departments increased awareness among staff and gave an obligation to staff to fulfil certain tasks (Abujudeh, Kaewlai et al. 2010). Through KPIs in individual can highlight areas of strengths and weaknesses, however more importantly can develop a systematic and detailed plan to improve their continual personal development. There are methods incorporated into KPIS to encourage reflective practice, Continual Professional Development (CPD) and life long learning (LLL) (Chapman, Dempsey et al. 2009). Within radiography these two strategies are used to develop reflective practice. LLL was implemented with the intention for individuals to continually re-educate themselves on advances within their field of work. CPD is a resource which is discussed in detail with, the relevant line manager. If CPD is used properly reflective thinking is encouraged in the practitioner (Chapman, Dempsey et al. 2009). This reinforces the rel ationship which exists between CPD and the development of reflective practice. The society of radiographers has invested in an exclusive CPD tool which gives advice to members on how to reflect and learn. The CPD plan outlines that reflective practice can be carried out in a number of ways. Firstly by writing a reflective journal about personal experiences in the workplace or secondly in an educational environment through health professionals attending courses, to learn better ways of becoming a good reflective practitioner (Kelly 2005). It is only through implementation of all of these methods that a continual and productive mode of reflective practice can be achieved through the CPD plan. Writing a reflective journal helps a health professional keep a record of their practice, remind themselves of good and bad practice, why it happened and how they overcame or will overcome the problem (Clouston, Westcott 2005). A study found when a group of radiation therapists gathered to write journals together that their motivation, confidence, professional knowledge, critical thinking and professional practice all increased ensuring the CPD of staff (Milinkovic, Field et al. 2008). It is vital for reflective practice to be a success, all individuals within an organisation must be wholly committed to the belief that reflective practice is a worthwhile and productive tool. Things which hinder reflective practice occur in workplaces where there is no emphasis put on it by line management.. The pressures placed on professionals in the clinical environment mean that the health professional may feel that time spent on reflective practice may seem wasted (Mann, Gordon et al. 2009). It is a well known fact that as the health professional spends more time in the profession, it is found that less of their time is spent reflecting. It has been said that barriers to reflective practice include lack of time and space, negative preconceptions, organisational culture, fear, the risk of routine and not fully understanding reflection (Clouston, Westcott 2005). A study found that the use of a facilitator within a healthcare team to guide people and help promote reflective practi ce was very beneficial to the team. The time spent on reflection was said to have enhanced critical thinking, professionalism, making decisions and being able to challenge things they were not in full agreement with (Mann, Gordon et al. 2009). The use of a reflective practice facilitator provides a systematic and constant reminder to practitioners of the importance and benefits which this tool can give in work life. The facilitator provides an outlet for relevant and knowledgeable advice in what a practitioner may perceive as being a difficult circumstance. This study suggests that reflective practice has a positive impact on clinical skills and professional practice. Another study found that within the format of a meeting environment consisting of health professionals, reflective practice was influenced by five factors. The first factor which influenced reflective practice was that too much structure in a meeting lowered the ability to reflect. Secondly the level of interest a prof essional has in reflection, the more interested being better reflectors. Meetings in which people have certain roles and consist of tasks do not provide ideal for reflection. A pressurised environment where a professional is obliged to complete tasks, was shown to prevent reflective capabilities also (Heel, Sparrow et al. 2006). It would be nieve and absurd to remove structure from this mode of reflection, as the KPI targets reinforce good reflection methods. . Reflective practice has been proven to be an important tool in developing clinical skills and professional development. All studies had a similar agreement that reflective practice is good but the method of reflecting varied. Reflective practice has to be carried out from student to professional level. Reflection was said to increase confidence, decision making, motivation and professionalism (Clouston, Westcott 2005). There were no studies found that measured the effectiveness of reflective practice, perhaps this is an area where more research is needed. Another area that no research was located on was bad experiences of reflective practice. Further study into these areas could give more insight into how beneficial reflection is.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Book Report On The Outsiders Character Analysis: Ponyboy Curtis - Ponyboy is a fourteen-year-old member of a gang called the Greasers. His parents died in a car accident, so he lives alone with his two older brothers, Darry and Soda. He is a good student and athlete, but most people at school consider him a vagrant like his Greaser friends. Sodapop Curtis - Soda is Pony's handsome, charming older brother. He dropped out of school to work at a gas station, and does not share his brothers' interest in studying and sports. Darrel Curtis - The oldest of the Curtis boys, Darry is also the acknowledged leader of the Greasers. Johnny Cade - Johnny is Pony's closest friend and the gang's pet. They are especially protective of him since he is smaller than the rest, his father beats him, and he is afraid to walk the streets alone after being attacked by a group of Socs. Cherry Valance - Cherry is from the richer part of town and associates mainly with the Socs, but she befriends Pony and the other Greasers and gives them information about the Socs. Bob Gardner - Bob is Cherry's boyfriend. Johnny murders Bob to stop him from killing Pony. Dallas Winston - A member of the Greasers, Dally has spent time in prison. He helps Johnny and Pony by telling them to go to Jay Mountain to hide out and by giving them money. Two-Bit Mathews - The Greasers' oldest member. He acts like a mentor or mascot to the Greasers. Steve Randle - Soda's best friend and anoth...
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Introduction:- Suggestion scheme is a formalized mechanism which encourages employees to contribute constructive ideas for improving the organisation in which they work. The overall aim is to gather, analyse and implement ideas in order to create results that have a positive impact on the business and/or deliver new value to customers. There are two approaches to the suggestion scheme * Traditional approach-which offers cash to their employees for the suggestions they provide. * Participative approach-continuous improvement in employee job profile through higher level of participation. SCREENING OF THE SUGGESTION Every suggestion is evaluated as per the criteria adaptability, creativity, originality and efforts, taken by the suggestor/employee. The amount of award is indicated with proper calculation and understanding of committee. If there is rejection then similar remark is indicated. Generally award is given when the suggestion is implemented. However if the suggestions are accepted and the course of implementation is longer, then interim award is given to the suggestor/employee to keep up his moral. In the same format other information regarding the implementing is indicated. A certificate is given to the suggestor/employee when the suggestion is accepted. This is signed by the chairman of the scheme or some top/ respectable person in the organization. In the good cultured company there is practice of giving a certificate of appreciation to the suggestor/employee even if it gets rejected. Often it carries good value to the suggestor/employee. It is more than money for some of them. Objective:- Primary objective:- * To understand employee suggestion scheme. Secondary objective:- * To analyse effective implementation of suggestions availed by employees. * To interpret initialisation in the part of management in processing the provided suggestions. * To measure employee-superior relationship and support. * To integrate creativity and constructive aptitude and attitude in non-personnel employees. * To set up a management infrastructure to generate ideas, evaluate and capture quality ideas and sustain constant flow of ideas.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Market segmentation approaches Essays Market segmentation approaches Essay Market segmentation approaches Essay Coca Cola Market Segmentation Approaches The Coca Cola product in question is the Minute Maid Just 10 juice that is consumed by over a billion people throughout the whole world. Geographically, Coca Cola should approaches should be broad-based and undifferentiated. They should perceive the market as comprising of many customers having a fundamental desire that must be satisfied. For instance, it can be assumed that nearly all customers who want to purchase Coke have a thirst need. While this is possibly the largest market that any company would seek, they have no products that would appeal to all consumers globally as people have different tastes, preferences and requirements. Globally, Coke has an approval among the young generation that is made up mostly of teenagers, working class and other youthful individuals. This market segment is the most lucrative for Coca Cola Company as its main features include an access to income or money, increased social activity as well as varied tastes when it comes to soft drinks. Coca Cola should also focus on segments having high incomes such as white-collar professions. Lastly, Coca Cola also targets children as they consume a considerable amount of cola products and they have a hold on their parents who supply the income. In terms of demographics, it follows a similar fashion to that of geographic segmentation where the parent company has subsidiaries all over the world that have a high degree of autonomy (Ryan et al 45). This autonomy should be reinforced to allow subsidiaries to make geographical-specific decisions that will boost growth and revenue margins. The reason for recommending these approaches is to maximize the profits and achieve the goals set by the company. Within the present economy, tailor-made approaches stand a better chance of being successful when compared to conventional and universal approaches that lack applicability in different circumstances (Ryan et al 4). Minute Maid is positioned as a drink for individuals who are generally mobile and active. Minute Maid Just 10 is the perfect drink for healthy, stress-free consumption at any time of the day. This is because it is provides essential minerals such as potassium, calcium as well as vitamin C extracted from real fruit juice and very low in calories. The Sunkist Company applies the undifferentiated marketing strategy by completely ignoring the segment differences and attracting the entire market with one strategy. The company main products are citrus fruits particularly oranges and lemons. The Unilever Company applies differentiated marketing strategy throughout its subsidiaries across the world. Within Sub-Saharan Africa where the purchasing power is low, the company has developed smaller sizes of the same products to enhance purchases. This is slightly different from their product in developed states that are bulkier and sold at relatively higher prices. Concerning the concentrated marketing strategy, the Toyota Company applied it in the development of the hybrid market that began with the Prius model. After the inception, the company increasingly focused on developing hybrid vehicles such as the Toyota Camry and Toyota Highlander. The company was able to get more customers by focusing on eco-friendly products (Ryan et al 18). Lastly, customized marketing that involves designing a particular product to meet the exact needs of a customer. Companies that use this type of marketing include website builders such as Wix. The Wix Company allows users to customize their products to their needs and standards before purchasing them. Marketing products this way ensure that in the end, the customer has to buy the product as he/ she finds exactly their preferences. Customized marketing is however reserved for unique or expensive product as it takes a lot of time and resources before a product is selected, customized and finished to the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s preferences. This is considered the highest type of target marketing. Work Cited Ryan, Damian, and Calvin Jones. Understanding Digital Marketing: Marketing Strategies for Engaging the Digital Generation. London: Kogan Page, 2009. Print.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Car Safety essays Car safety is something which is extremely important because the roads which we drive on are much more dangerous than we think. You might think you are a safe driver, and maybe you are, but how about other drivers? Each and everyday, hundreds of thousands of cars are on our roads making the chances of a car accident very likely. That is why car safety is so crucial. You might think such an important thing as car safety should be mandatory, well it is now, but 50 or so years ago, seat belts, airbags and front/rear crumple zones were not. Seatbelts were first thought of in the 1930s by US physicians and only in the 1950s did countries require newly built cars to have seatbelts fitted and finally in 1969, 3-point seat belts were mandatory in Australia. The reason why we have seat belts are simple. They keep us from hitting the interior of the car, flying head- first into the windscreen or even smashing through the windscreen in the event of car crash or if it comes to an instant stop. You might say wouldnt we stop as the car stops? Well, according to Newtons First Law of Motion, The Law of Inertia, thats not the case. Inertia is an objects tendency to keep on doing what it is doing/moving and at its speed unless an unbalance force acts against it. Newtons 1st Law emphasises that an object will persist in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an unbalanced external force. Well the seatbelt is that unbalanced external force. Force is the product of the mass of an object and its acceleration (f=ma). The person(s) inside the vehicle has a mass and it is also travelling at a certain speed, thus they must also have a force. This is derived from Newtons 2nd Law of Motion. His second law is formulised through f=ma (force equals mass by acceleration), but force can also be formulised through f=mv-mu/t (force equals mass by final velocity mi...
Monday, November 4, 2019
Energizing Red Bull - Essay Example This essay discusses that the Ã¢â¬Å"Red Bull Ã¢â¬â The Anti-Brand BrandÃ¢â¬ case showcases the strategic and global growth of energy drink, Red Bull. Discovered in Asia by Dietrich Mateschitz as a drink to boost factory productivity in 1982, the drink became a household name by 2003 with sales in more than 100 markets and a market share of 70%. Being a pioneer in energy drinks segment, Red Bull is an innovative product that tactically filled a gap in the market that only had coffee or natural juices as alternative options for energy. Red Bull, a compund mixture of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone, claimed to boost metabolism, improve performance, increase concentration and reaction speed, and increased endurance. Red Bull attained operational excellence by having decentralized sales and distribution channels, making sure that the product was accessible and available at all times. The brand created high barriers to entry by making sure there were Ã¢â¬Å"exclusiveÃ¢â¬ p artnerships with strong distributors. The sales teams helped generate an aura of Ã¢â¬Å"exclusivityÃ¢â¬ by handpicking initial distributors and deliberate limiting of the supply. As expected in any industry, a growing market always attracts competition. In 2004, Red Bull faced intense competition from giant brands such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi who were developing their Ã¢â¬Å"health drinksÃ¢â¬ business and from private lables across the market. Currently, the top competition for Red Bull is from Monster, Pepsi and Suntory. It is seen from recent reports that the market share of Red Bull slipped to 40% in 2010. (Privo, 2010). The following write-up describes the marketing & communication strategies that Red Bull shouls adapt in order to rebrand its image and increase its sales to fight competition. Media Strategy Adopted by Red Bull in the case Key Customers & Customer segments The key customers for Red Bull were Generation Y-ers (18-29 year olds) who were the main consumers of Ã ¢â¬Å"extra energyÃ¢â¬ projects. Previously, these customers looked out for products (sometimes illegal) such as alchohol to provide them the extra thrill in their lives. Within the young adults customer group, Red Bull segmented them further to customize their promotional activities with respect to their needs. These segments are: Club-goers: All party-loving people who love a vibrant nightlife, like to dance and drink. These customers were the major consumers of thrilling vodka-red bull mix. Outdoors enthusiasts (Skiers, Skate-boarders): Outdoors enthusiasts such as skiers, snowboarders wanted Red bull to keep their energy levels high during their expeditions. Extreme Sports & Action games lovers: Lovers of extreme sports and action games such as racecar, bike racing and skydiving etc. also consumed Red Bull with zest. Hardcire Music fans: Music fans that regularly attend music festivals, rock concerts and other music gatherings were also users of energy drinks as Red Bull. Stu dents: Students who needed extra energy during their exams and university classes were another segment of Red Bull consumers. Product Positioning The manufacturers of Red Bull created an innovative niche for itself by positioning the product as a different, cool and rebellious product, which is available at a premium. Dietrich Mateschitz deliberately separated Red Bull from carbonated drinks (soda), juices or coffee. (Joyner, 2011). Key Messages & Brand Positioning The brand positioning and key messagers were derived from out of the product benefits and after-effects: Red Bull vitalizes body and mind. This key message became the nucleus of all promotional activities surrounding Red Bull with brand attributes as innovative, rebelling, self ironic, intelligent, nonconformist, self-confidence, mysterious, witty, charming, polarising and unpredictable. Red BullÃ¢â¬â¢
Friday, November 1, 2019
Public & Private enterprise - Essay Example Some good and services are not suppose to be provided by the private sectors in some countries. The public goods and services are defined by economist as non excludable and non rival while private goods are excludable and rival (Kelly, 2007). In public purchasing, it is important to use ethics in order to improve the morale and loyalty of customers and workers. Ethics in management ensure that leaders behave according to the code of contact hence attracting customers and retaining the previous customers (Kelly, 2007) In the reconstruction of Tappan Zee Bridge it is important to use the Public-Private Partnership (PPP). The construction will be effective since both the private and public sector will provide services and funds. There will be merging of ideas and the construction will be effective (Kelly, 2007). In respect to the wimp video there are five types of government. Monarchy or dictatorship is the first form of government which is ruled by a king with nobles. Oligarchy is another form which is the most common form of government ruled by powerful few. Anarchy is another form which means without government. People decided to have no government due to crimes committed by the government. Government is necessary for the protection and security and anarchy is not a good form of government. Democracy type f government means a form of government the rule of the majority. Republic government means the public thing and the government is limited by the law to safeguard the public (Kelly, 2007). Private-public enterprises are a contract made between a private party and a public sector authority. In the enterprise, a private party provides a service and assumes all risks, substantial financial and technical risks in the business. Example of the private-public enterprise is health organization providing health services, water privatization, centralized units and financing like banking services
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
All American Poem - Essay Example It uncovers the profundity of Dickmans ethical creative ability and demands his dedication to creating his different voice and topical reach. Mayakovskys Revolver is that uncommon work that lays bear how verse battles both with life and with itself. When all is said in done Dickman is an extraordinary kind of artist, the sort to start in his followers an interest for the creator himself. One may muse on how a discussion with Yeats may go, or wish to send Robert Lowell some lively blessing via mail, yet what might one tribute for an evening of strolling with Whitman, simply listening to him bring up out, or to light both closures of ones flame with Edna St. Vincent Millay? Dickmans ballads appear to handle you by the wrist, or around the waist and aide you to a vantage point where the world looks somewhat more confident. This is particularly valid for his first book, All-American Poem, which overflows over with satisfaction, with quality, and dissatisfaction of all assortment. It is the sort of book you require your companions to peruse. Here is a selection from one of the sonnets of that gathering, "Moderate Dance," which picked up right on time consideration, along these lines numerous solicitations at readings that Dickman once clowned it was in hazard of turning into his "Free Bird": One could continue endlessly like this. What fun there is in Dickman! What inconvenience and hopelessness! There is sufficient sex and amusingness and excellence in these pages to make one swell with the rapture of presence. Yet, however characteristic the appeal of Dickmans work, his ballads are anything other than gullible. His simple style may appear to think again at history with close to a detached look, however this insouciance is won through cautious study: one of Dickmans enchantment traps is pulling off the posture of footloose novice while at the same time participating in an expert dialog with the wonderful convention. In fact, Dickmans engagement with his
Monday, October 28, 2019
Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity Essay Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity People of different religions are in contact with each other every day, and do not even realize it. Here in the United States there is a compilation of many religions. Three major religions not only in the United States, but also throughout the world are Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. There are many differences, and few similarities when comparing Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. Not only are the backgrounds of these religions similar and different, but so are the practices that they still live out to this day. Hinduism originated between 4000 and 2000 BC. Hinduism believes in Karma, Ã¢â¬Å"you reap what you sow,Ã¢â¬ and reincarnation. Reincarnation is the belief that after death, the soul can come back to earth in another body. The Hindu trinity is the Brahma, Vishnu, and the Shiva, which are the three aspects of the same divine being. There are four goals in the life of a Hindu. They are Kama, Artha, Dharma, and Moksha. These mean the fulfillment of certain desires, wealth, religious duties, and not wanting things. The cow and the bull are both considered sacred and should not be slaughtered. So Hindus are forbidden from eating beef. There are many festivals affiliated with the Hindu religion, because they believe it keeps them close to their gods. At least once a month, there is a Hindu festival, where they celebrate their diversity. Islam is the second largest religion in the world, and the fastest growing religion in the world. Islam is the belief in the Judeo-Christian God. Muslims are monotheistic, and believe in the five pillars of Islam. The five pillars are the Shahada, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, and the Hajj. The Shahada means testimony, Salat is for prayer, Zakat is for giving, Sawm is for fasting, and Hajj means pilgrimage. According to Muslims, Muhammad was a cornerstone of Islam, and he was godÃ¢â¬â¢s messenger. For Muslims, the pig is an unclean animal, and is forbidden to eat unless prepared in accordance with prescribed rules. Intoxicating drinks and substances are prohibited. Christianity is a major world religion that adapted over 2000 years ago. It is the belief that Jesus of Nazareth is the Son of God. The major text of Christianity is the Bible. The Bible concludes of an Old and a New Testament, and is a compilation of books. Christians have many ways of religious practices. There are festivals and feasts, which are usually celebrated on holidays. The communal worship takes place on Sundays and other days of the week in which people from the church come together for rituals. The last is private worship, which is used when one is alone, where they can engage in prayer, devotions, and spiritual practices. Islam is a religion founded by a prophet. In contrast, Hinduism is a group of religious traditions, established over a period of time. In Hinduism personalities do not count as much as the divine law or the dharma. So in Islam the message of Islam is far more important than the person of Muhammad himself. Unlike Christianity, Muslims do not worship their prophet. Unlike Islam, Hinduism is strictly monogamous. Christianity, Hinduism, and Islam all share similarities and differences. Unlike Hinduism, Christianity and Islam share the belief of only one god. Hindus have a god for fire, death, water, etc. The practices of Christianity and Islam are sometimes in groups, while Hinduism is practiced alone. All three religions believe in the efficacy of prayer. But Hinduism and Islam believe in the importance of remembering and reciting the names, words, and deeds of god, for inner purification. Unlike Islam and Christianity, Hinduism has the choice of an intervener between god and a person, such as a priest or a guru for assistance. Intimate relationships are not approved of in Islam and Hinduism. Dating is considered both irreligious and immoral. In these two religions along with Christianity, premarital sex is considered immoral also. In conclusion all three religions share that they believe in an afterlife, and strive for immortality. For all religions death is a normal and natural thing that leads to an eternal life. Christianity and Islam are closer together then Hinduism. Mostly Europeans adopted Christianity along with Islam in the 18th and 19th centuries. This means that both Christianity and Islam have been influenced in some ways by the European culture. The Europeans have pulled Christianity and Islam close together while the Europeans have never influenced Hinduism, which makes Hinduism different from the other two religions.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Human Genetic Screening What is genetic screening? Genetic screening is the testing of cells to check for certain kinds of genes, or for potentially damaging changes to those genes. It may be defined as a systematic search for persons with a particular genotype in a defined population. Genetic screening serves as an important adjunct of modern preventive medicine. The usual approach is to identify persons whose genotype places them or their offspring at risk for genetic diseases. Such screening has the potential to lessen the devastating impact of genetic diseases. Genetic screening may be undertaken for research purposes unrelated to disease or the improvement of health. The National Academy of Sciences recommends that genetic screening is an appropriate form of medical care only when certain conditions are met. These include: (1) evidence of substantial public benefit and acceptance, (2) the benefits outweigh the costs; (3) appropriate public education can be carried out; (4) informed consent is feasible; (5) the means are available to evaluate the effectiveness and success of each step in the process (Blank, 1982). Some screening is aimed at the general population, while others are targeted at selective high-risk population; screening can also be conducted at various stages of life. There are three principal types of genetic screening. (1) Newborn screening identifies serious genetic disease at birth, permitting prompt treatment to prevent mental and physical retardation. (2) Fetal screening and prenatal diagnosis identify genetic disease in the fetus permitting selective termination of pregnancy and the opportunity to have children free of defects detectable in uterus. (3) Carrier screening identifies individuals hete... ...5. Fost, N., 1993. Genetic diagnosis and treatment, American Journal of Diseases of Children. 147(11):1190-1195. 6. Knoppers, B.M., 1986. Genetic information and the law: constains, liability and rights. Can Med Assoc J. 135(12):1257-1259. 7. Markel, H.M., 1992. The stigma of disease: implication of genetic screening. The Americal Journal of Medicine 93:209-214. 8. Rowley, P.T., 1984. Genetic screening: marvel or menace? Science 225(4658) Jul 13: 138-144. 9. Waugh, D., 1994. The human-genome project and pandor's box. Can Med Assoc J. 151(1):73. 10. "What is genetic screening" obtained from the WWW: http:/www.scicomm.org.uk/biosis/human/whatis1.html 11. "The principles of genetics and heredity" obtained from the WWW: http:/www.eb.com:180/cgi- bin/g?docF=macro/5002/57/50.html&DBase=Articles&hits=10&context=allÃ ¶gra phType=1&indexremove=off#0102
Thursday, October 24, 2019
This research was conducted to assess the relationship between selected demographics, job mastery, and job satisfaction. A total 6,902 participants were gathered from the telephone and Internet provider BellSouth. A significant relationship was found between age and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was also significantly correlated with years spent with the company. Significant differences were found between gender and job satisfaction, as well as level of education and job satisfaction. These findings suggest that as age and years spent with the company increase job satisfaction also increases and job satisfaction may depend upon the level of education of the employee. The Relationship between Specific Demographic Variables, Job Mastery, and Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction serves as important factor in improving not only the general happiness of employees, but also enhancing the work performance. For these reasons, psychologists and employers alike have studied the factors that may effect overall job satisfaction among employees. For example, previous research has found a negative significant relationship between social stressors and job satisfaction (Harris, Harvey, & Kacmar, 2009). This research signified that as the social stressors of employment decreased the job satisfaction of the employee increased. Although this research was beneficial in the implication of increasing job satisfaction of employees, previous research in evaluating other factors effecting job satisfaction has not been as successful. Previous research evaluating the relationship between specific demographic factors and job satisfaction has been inconclusive (Scott, Swortzel, & Taylor, 2005). However, Harris et al. (2009) ... ... week, so that all employees would have a chance to complete the survey and the data could not be linked to the shift that the employee worked. Results Frequencies were preformed on call waiting, caller id, Internet, and multiple lines. Results indicated that 58.40% of employees did not own multiple telephone lines and 41.60% of employees did own multiple lines. Similar results were found for caller id and call waiting. Frequencies revealed that 48.40% of employees did not own caller idÃ¢â¬â¢s and 51.6% of employees did own caller idÃ¢â¬â¢s. Frequencies also indicated that 49.10% of employees did not have call waiting and 50.90% did have call waiting. The most surprising information provided by frequencies was the lack of employees who had Internet. Results indicated that only 26.10% of BellSouth employees had Internet, while 70.00% of employees did not have Internet.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
California Pizza Kitchen was first created in 1985 in Beverly Hills, California. By 2007 there were 213 locations throughout 28 states and 6 countries. Although 41% of the stores were based in California, keeping with the restaurants theme, the dining model flourished throughout the United States. For the second quarter of 2007, although they were faced with industry challenges such as raised commodity, labor and energy costs, they were still expected to break quarterly records with over $6 million in profits. Although they experienced good performance, the share price had declined 10% to a current value of $22.10. Susan Collyns, CFO, and her team were faced with the decision of a share repurchase program. They had little money in excess cash though, so a repurchase agreement would mean debt financing. A share repurchase would send a positive signal to the market, with future values expected to be high. The financial team also needs to decide on the appropriate capital structure. Because of the low interest rates, CPK can issue the debt needed for a repurchase agreement at a low cost. Also because they have no previous debt, this would not be a large risk and it will in fact increase the value of CPK due to decreased taxes, which comes from the tax shield. The leverage from exhibit 9 has different effects for return on equity and cost of capital. For return on equity, as you increase leverage, the ROE increases as well. At 10% debt/capital, ROE is 9.52%, 20% debt/capital, ROE is 10.19%, and 30% debt/capital, ROE is 11.05%. Using the beta equation to find the effect on cost of equity, you can see that it increases as well when the leverage increases. For 10% debt/capital, the beta of equity is .87 and cost of equity is 14.34%, 20% debt/capital, beta equity is .89 and cost of equity is 14.56%, lastly 30% debt/capital, beta equity is .915 and cost of equity is 14.84%. These increases also mean an increase in risk of the company because of the additional debt taken on. When taking into consideration the WACC equation, there will be an overall decrease in cost of equity to the firm because of the low cost of debt and the additional tax shield. When finding share prices, it is evident they will increase with each debt/capital percent. At 10% debt/capital, the price of stock will go up to $22.35, which is a 1.13% increase in price, and allows the buy back of 1.01 million shares. At 20% debt/capital structure, the price will move up to $22.60, a 2.26% increaseÃ and can buy back 1.99 million shares. Lastly, a 30% debt/capital, the price will move to $22.86, a 2.99% increase and allow the buy back of 2.97 million shares. Again, the added value to the firm can be attributed to the present value of the tax shield that debt allows them to capture. So this allows for the buy back of shares at the new price. In my opinion, I think Susan Collyns should choose the 20% debt/capital structure. Under this structure, they should partake in a share repurchase program and buy back around 1.99 million shares. This will allow for an increase in share price that would please shareholders. There is not a huge level of risk involved in the 20% structure, it leaves room for future expansion but moderates how much debt taken on.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
disorders essays Causes, Symptoms, Complications and Treatments for the eating disorder Anorexia Nervosa. Eating disorders are devastating behavioral maladies brought on by a complex interplay of factors, which may include emotional and personality disorder, family pressure, a possible genetic or biological susceptibility and a culture in which there is an over abundance of food and an obsession with thinness. Eating disorders are generally characterized as bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa and eating disorders not other wise specified. According to the World of Psychology anorexia is defined as " an eating disorder characterized by an overwhelming, irrational fear of being fat, compulsive dieting to the point of self starvation and excessive weight loss."(World of Psychology Page 317). There are some causes, symptoms, complications and treatment of anorexia nervosa. There is no single cause for the eating disorder anorexia but a number of factors including emotional disorders and cultural influences. Researchers have shown that emotional disorders such as depression collaborate in causing anorexia nervosa. This is because most anorexic patients have been found to have abnormal levels of certain neurotransmitters particularly serotonin, that are associated with depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. According to a research conducted by Dr. John .E. Godine of Harvard Medical School " studies are finding that low blood levels of amino acid tryptophan, a component in food that is essential to the production of serotonin, can produce depression and may also contribute to anorexia nervosa" (Psychology Today Page 17, May 97). Researches have also shown that changes in seasons affects both depression and eating disorders and also that onset of anorexia appears to peak in May, which is also a peak month for suicide. Anxiety disorde rs are also very common with anorexia. Phobias and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) usu...
Monday, October 21, 2019
The Writers Voice in Literature and Rhetoric In rhetoric and literary studies, voice is the distinctive style or manner of expression of an author or narrator.Ã As discussed below, voice is one of the most elusive yet important qualities in a piece of writing.Ã Voice is usually the key element in effective writing, says teacher and journalist Donald Murray. It isÃ what attracts the reader and communicatesÃ to the reader. It is that element that gives the illusion of speech.Ã Murray continues: Voice carries the writers intensity and glues together the information that the reader needs to know. It is the music in writing that makes the meaning clear (Expecting the Unexpected: Teaching Myselfand Othersto Read and Write, 1989). EtymologyFrom the Latin, call The Music of a Writers Voice Voice is the sum of all strategies used by the author to create the illusion that the writer is speaking directly to the reader from the page. (Don Fry, quoted by Roy P. Clark, Writing Tools. Little, Brown, 2006) Voice is the most popular metaphor for writing style, but an equally suggestive one may be delivery or presentation, as it includes body language, facial expression, stance, and other qualities that set speakers apart from one another. (Ben Yagoda, The Sound on the Page. HarperCollins, 2004) If one means by style the voice, the irreducible and always recognizable and alive thing, then of course style is really everything. (Mary McCarthy, Writers at Work: The Paris Review Interviews, Second Series. 1977) Voice and Speech I think voice is one of the main forces that draws us into texts. We often give other explanations for what we like (clarity, style, energy, sublimity, reach, even truth), but I think its often one sort of voice or another. One way of saying this is that voice seems to overcome writing or textuality. That is, speech seems to come to us as listener; the speaker seems to do the work of getting the meaning into our heads. In the case of writing, on the other hand, its as though we as reader have [to] go to the text and do the work of extracting the meaning. And speech seems to give us more sense of contact with the author. (Peter Elbow, Everyone Can Write: Essays Toward a Hopeful Theory of Writing and Teaching. Oxford University Press, 2000) Multiple Voices The personality I am expressing in this written sentence is not the same as the one I orally express to my three-year-old who at this moment is bent on climbing onto my typewriter. For each of these two situations, I choose a different voice, a different mask, in order to accomplish what I want accomplished. (Walker Gibson, The Limits of Language. Hill and Wang, 1966) Just as you dress differently on different occasions, as a writer you assume different voices in different situations. If youre writing an essay about a personal experience, you may work hard to create a strong personal voice in your essay. . . . If youre writing a report or essay exam, you will adopt a more formal, public tone. Whatever the situation, the choice you make as you write and revise . . . will determine how readers interpret and respond to your presence. (Lisa Ede, Work in Progress: A Guide to Writing and Revising. St. Martins Press, 1989) Tone and Voice If voice is the writers personality that a reader hears in a text, then tone might be described as the writers attitude in a text. The tone of a text might be emotional (angry, enthusiastic, melancholy), measured (such as in an essay in which the author wants to seem reasonable on a controversial topic), or objective or neutral (as in a scientific report). . . . In writing, tone is created through word choice, sentence structure, imagery, and similar devices that convey to a reader the writers attitude. Voice, in writing, by contrast, is like the sound of your spoken voice: deep, high-pitched, nasal. It is the quality that makes your voice distinctly your own, no matter what tone you might take. In some ways, tone and voice overlap, but voice is a more fundamental characteristic of a writer, whereas tone changes upon the subject and the writers feelings about it. (Robert P. Yagelski,Ã Writing: Ten Core Concepts. Cengage, 2015) Grammar and Voice Ã¢â¬â¹If, as we believe, grammar is linked to voice, students need to be thinking about grammar far earlier in the writing process. We cannot teach grammar in lasting ways if we teach it as a way to fix students writing, especially writing they view as already complete. Students need to construct knowledge of grammar by practicing it as part of what it means to write, particularly in how it helps create a voice that engages the reader on the page. (Mary Ehrenworth and Vicki Vinton, The Power of Grammar: Unconventional Approaches to the Conventions of Language. Heinemann, 2005) The Elusive Entity of Voice One of the most mysterious of writingÃ¢â¬â¢s immaterial properties is what people call voice. . . . Prose can show many virtues, including originality, without having a voice. It may avoid clichÃ ©, radiate conviction, be grammatically so clean that your grandmother could eat off it. But none of this has anything to do with this elusive entity the voice. There are probably all kinds of literary sins that prevent a piece of writing from having a voice, but there seems to be no guaranteed technique for creating one. Grammatical correctness doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t insure it. Calculated incorrectness doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t, either. Ingenuity, wit, sarcasm, euphony, frequent outbreaks of the first-person singular- any of these can enliven prose without giving it a voice. (Louis Menand, Bad Comma. The New Yorker, June 28, 2004)
Sunday, October 20, 2019
The Intolerable Acts (1774) in the American Revolution The Intolerable Acts were passed in spring 1774, and helped cause the American Revolution (1775-1783). Background In the years after the French and Indian War, Parliament attempted to levy taxes, such as the Stamp Act and Townshend Acts, on the colonies to aid in covering the cost of maintaining the empire. On May 10, 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act with the goal of aiding the struggling British East India Company. Prior to the passage of the law, the company had been required to sell its tea through London where it was taxed and duties assessed. Under the new legislation, the company would be permitted to sell tea directly to the colonies without the additional cost. As a result, tea prices in America would be reduced, with only the Townshend tea duty assessed. During this period, the colonies, angered by the taxes levied by the Townshend Acts, had been systematically boycotting British goods and claiming taxation without representation. Aware that the Tea Act was an attempt by Parliament to break the boycott, groups such as the Sons of Liberty, spoke out against it. Across the colonies, British tea was boycotted and attempts were made to produce tea locally. In Boston, the situation climaxed in late November 1773, when three ships carrying East India Company tea arrived in the port. Rallying the populace, the members of the Sons of Liberty dressed as Native Americans and boarded the ships on the night of December 16. Carefully avoiding damaging other property, the raiders tossed 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor. A direct affront to British authority, the Boston Tea Party forced Parliament to take action against the colonies. In retribution for this affront to royal authority, the Prime Minister, Lord North, began passing a series of five laws, dubbed the Coercive or Intolerable Acts, the following spring to punish the Americans. The Boston Port Act Passed on March 30, 1774, the Boston Port Act was a direct action against the city for the previous Novembers tea party. The legislation dictated that the port of Boston was closed to all shipping until full restitution was made to the East India Company and the King for the lost tea and taxes. Also included in the act was the stipulation that the colonys seat of government should be moved to Salem and Marblehead made a port of entry. Loudly protesting, many Bostonians, including Loyalists, argued that the act punished the entire city rather than the few who were responsible for the tea party. As supplies in the city dwindled, other colonies began sending relief to the blockaded city. Massachusetts Government Act Enacted on May 20, 1774, the Massachusetts Government Act was designed to increase royal control over the colonys administration. Abrogating the colonys charter, the act stipulated that its executive council would no longer be democratically elected and its members would instead be appointed by the king. Also, many colonial offices that were previously elected officials would henceforth be appointed by the royal governor. Across the colony, only one town meeting was permitted a year unless approved by the governor. Following General Thomas Gages use of the act to dissolve the provincial assembly in October 1774, Patriots in the colony formed the Massachusetts Provincial Congress which effectively controlled all of Massachusetts outside of Boston. Administration of Justice Act Passed the same day as the previous act, the Administration of Justice Act stated that royal officials could request a change of venue to another colony or Great Britain if charged with criminal acts in fulfilling their duties. While the act allowed travel expenses to be paid to witnesses, few colonists could afford to leave work to testify at a trial. Many in the colonies felt it was unnecessary as British soldiers had received a fair trial after the Boston Massacre. Dubbed the Murder Act by some, it was felt that it allowed royal officials to act with impunity and then escape justice. Quartering Act A revision of the 1765 Quartering Act, which was largely ignored by colonial assemblies, the 1774 Quartering Act expanded the types of buildings in which soldiers could be billeted and removed the requirement that they be provided with provisions. Contrary to popular belief, it did not permit the housing of soldiers in private homes. Typically, soldiers were first to be placed in existing barracks and public houses, but thereafter could be housed in inns, victualing houses, empty building, barns, and other unoccupied structures. Quebec Act Though it did not have a direct effect on the thirteen colonies, the Quebec Act was considered part of the Intolerable Acts by the American colonists. Intended to ensure the loyalty of the kings Canadian subjects, the act greatly enlarged Quebecs borders and allowed the free practice of the Catholic faith. Among the land transferred to Quebec was much of the Ohio Country, which had been promised to several colonies through their charters and to which many had already laid claim. In addition to angering land speculators, others were fearful about the spread of Catholicism in American. Intolerable Acts - Colonial Reaction In passing the acts, Lord North had hoped to detach and isolate the radical element in Massachusetts from the rest of the colonies while also asserting the power of Parliament over the colonial assemblies. The harshness of the acts worked to prevent this outcome as many in the colonies rallied to MassachusettsÃ¢â¬â¢s aid. Seeing their charters and rights under threat, colonial leaders formed committees of correspondence to discuss the repercussions of the Intolerable Acts. These led to the convening of the First Continental Congress at Philadelphia on September 5. Meeting at Carpenters Hall, delegates debated various courses for bringing pressure against Parliament as well as whether they should draft a statement of rights and liberties for the colonies. Creating the Continental Association, the congress called for a boycott of all British goods. If the Intolerable Acts were not repealed within a year, the colonies agreed to halt exports to Britain as well as support Massachusetts if it was attacked. Rather than exact punishment, Norths legislation worked to pull the colonies together and pushed them down the road towards war.