Thursday, January 30, 2020

The European Enlightenment Essay Example for Free

The European Enlightenment Essay The scientific revolution is more of a new or modern way of thinking about nature. While science already had a presence prior to the 16th century, the teachings were based more on practical applications, rational thought and magic. s of science, 3elements permeated it – empirical practice, magic and rational thought which continued for thousands of years until the 16th and 17th century. With the scientific revolution, rational thought was enhanced through methods which can be the sole explanation for any phenomena of nature. Refute with reason but overwhelm by experiment. (Hall xvi). We think of Galileo as the first of the moderns because he broke the strangling hold of the traditional authorities – Aristotle, Ptolemy and Galen – upon scientific thought. He supported the Copernican hypothesis. He boldly countered errors of traditionally accepted beliefs and appealed to something new through the evidence of experiments. His system was enhanced by philosophers such as Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes who called their subject natural philosophy in an attempt to give a systematic explanation to the natural. With the entry of Sir Isaac Newton and the â€Å"invisible colleges†, discoveries and inventions came one after the other. Whereas religion used deductive reasoning in the arrival of its conclusions, the revolution brought on inductive reasoning which begins with a hypothesis that were tested using quantifiable data and methodical experimentation. By 1690, science had developed a philosophy – experimental and a method – mathematical and a goal – the improvement of the lot of mankind. (Baker ix, x). There came a paradigm shift in how the physical world was investigated. Reason slowly robbed magic of its power as it is an element of the irrational. Reason is initially used but compounded by experiment. The widely-believed Ptolemy system was anthropocentric based with an immobile earth is the center of the universe. While it was being discarded through deductive reasoning, i. e. , the world is vile and corrupt and therefore not worthy to be the center, the rational thinkers using the Copernicus hypothesis as reference and with observed facts and physical using reason, terrestrial mechanical phenomena, qualitative observation and quantitative observation by recalculating orbits went on to prove their heliocentric theory that the earth is only one of several planets that revolve around the sun. It also killed the Greek animism of appetites, natural tendencies, sympathies and attractions. Instead, explanation must be in terms of description of processes, mechanisms, interconnection of parts (Hall xvi, xviii). For Aristotle and his followers, bodies continually move so as to fulfill their natures. All matter is goal-oriented. They are of a teleological nature, which makes them animistic as they attributed soul-like properties. Modern natural philosophy used the machine metaphor, i. . the inner workings of a being are like the mechanism of a clock. They refer to their practice as mechanical philosophy. The development of mechanism gave rise to the view of matter-as-passive and is central to mechanical natural philosophy (Shapin 24-44). Traditional philosophies had been integrated into the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church which was the only Christian religion at that time. The Copernican theory was said to be contrary to the Holy Scripture and utterly heretical. It ran contrary to a decree in 1616 which was issued after the burning of Giordano Bruno for teaching the plurality of worlds or universes outside our own. As well, the present academe were slow in accepting that they have given their lives blindly to the defense of errors. The attitude in the middle ages was that where reason was incompetent to decide, faith should pronounce and that in many instances faith must prevail over reason. (Hall 74-75, 103-105). The medieval church had originally set its feet against and systematic scientific enquiry on the grounds that man was not intended to know the mind of God as interpreted by himself. Even Protestants stressed that all knowledge must come form the Bible. Bacon popularized that God actually intended man to recover its mastery over nature. In his text Instauratio Maga (The Great Instauration), the Book of Daniel was quoted in its cover, â€Å"Many shall pass to and fro and science shall be increased† (Shapiro 120). Thus, scientific enquiry became legitimate and prepared the way for scientific revolution. Later, there came about a new religious fervor in Deism, a name for the rationalized faith leading to the worship of the â€Å"divine clockmaker† which distrust anything mystical. It is based on the reasoning that if the universe was created by God, and the universe is a rational place then God was rational. (Baker x). Sir Isaac Newton in 1687 presented fundamental arguments of the mechanical universe in his book Principia Mathematia which basically summarizes the conceptual change brought about by the scientific revolution and the path it would take: mathematical models are accurate descriptions of the universe the universe moves rationally and predictably one need not appeal to revealed religion or theology to explain any aspect of physical phenomena\all planets and other objects move due to a physical attraction called gravity The universe concept is based on Inertia: every object remains at rest until moved by another object and stays in motion unless stopped or redirected by another object (Hooker).

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Self management approach at King Fahd University Hospital in Saudi Arab

Self management approach at King Fahd University Hospital in Saudi Arabia There are many diseases in the world that affect patient’s life. WOH has mentioned that chronic conditions might lead to disability in the future which leads to spend a lot of money to treat patients (WHO, 2005). The prevalence of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases, obesity, overweight and diabetes has become a great cause of concern for the Saudi Arabian government. In addition, the number of patients with chronic diseases is increasing. The main reasons for that are people in Saudi Arabia have bad lifestyle, unhealthy diet and lack of physical activities (Maheshwari, 2011). To control chronic diseases and prevent patients from getting worse, we need to distinguish between chronic diseases and cute diseases. Chronic condition is one that 'has been (or is likely to be) present for at least 6 months, or is terminal' (The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners 2000). To treat chronic diseases we need to change lifestyle and we need to consider many things such as cost of drugs, availability of the medication, health providers. In addition, all health professional and patients should be aware about self management. Many studies proved that self-management is an important component of effective management of people with chronic conditions. It is a frame work that consists patients, family and health providers. Self management program can improve the quality of life, increasing patients information, decreasing hospitalization and visiting physician, improving patient's behaviors and improving the health care system for chronic diseases (Epping-Jordan et al. 2004). Unfortunately, Saudi Arabia does not have any self management approach to ... ...which may led to increase patient's confidence (self management toolkit 2011).Self management toolkit shows good communication strategies for improving self management in patients with chronic diseases which are engaging the patients, exploring importance ambivalence and collaborative action planning (self management toolkit 2011). The good self model that can be implanted in my service is Flinders model. The Flinders model of chronic disease management has been developed by Dr. Malcolm Battersby and associates at Flinders University in Adelaide, South Australia. There are many reasons for using Flinders model. Firstly, it is a patient-centered care model and easy to be used. Another reason is that it creates a good partnership between health care providers and patients where the patient can be the decision maker and the health care provider can be facilitator.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Mapleland Fiber Network (MFN) Essay

The city of Mapleland, Oregon, which owns and operates its own power utility, built a fiber-optic network to monitor power meters at residents’ homes. The network is called Mapleland Fiber Network (MFN). Because MFN had more capacity than was needed to monitor meters, the city expanded its services to offer access to the network for citybusinesses. The businesses use the network to communicate with each other and to access the Internet. At the MFN headend, which is located with the city government offices, three routers and WAN links connect to the Internet for use by the city. The businesses on MFN also use these routers to reach the Internet. In addition to the business service, MFN also offers cable modem service to homes. A cable modem router at the MFN headend connects to the fiber-optic network. In the city neighborhoods, hybrid fiber-coax nodes bring coax cabling to each street and into the homes for cable modem Internet access. The MFN backbone consists of a fiber-optic Gigabit Ethernet network that runs through the city in a ring topology. The fiber-optic ring connects the hybrid fiber-coax nodes that bring coax cabling to each neighborhood. Also connected to the ring are six data routers. Each router links one or more Mapleland businesses to MFN via simple point-to-point connections. At the business, the fiber-optic network enters the building and connects to a media converter. A UTP cable connects to the media converter and typically to a 100-Mbps Ethernet switch. The switch links the business’s computers and servers in a star opology via UTP cabling. 1. Draw a network map that shows the topology of the MFN and how the main components are connected. 2. What other information would you gather to improve your map and add more detail? 3. Mapleland is considering expanding the MFN to include wireless access for its residences. What additional investigation will you do to prepare for a citywide wireless network? 4. What security concerns do you have for the wireless network?

Monday, January 6, 2020

Essay about Anwar Sadats Decision To Make - 1565 Words

Throughout time the decisions made by an individual or a group, such as President Anwar Sadat and his decision to make peace with Israel has dramatically changed the course of history. Every leader in history has made a decision that has affected the world, or just his nation in some way. After many years of struggling to keep peace among the Jews and Arabs, President Anwar Sadat, finally decided to make peace with Israel. Peace between Israel and Egypt would mean great changes were going to take place. This momentous decision would be a large step up for the two nations and would lead to them better lives, in peace. Before the Egyptian Israeli Peace Pact was signed in 1978, Palestine and Israel were enemies with each other in†¦show more content†¦They didn’t think that the Arabs would have the nerve to attack on the holiest day. Since it is a fast day, that made it worse, since the soldiers were considerably weaker on that day. Nine Arab states helped along with the Egyptian-Syrian war effort. The Yom Kippur War ended as a tie. A tie didn’t look good for Israel, since they had won all of the previous wars, however it looked better for the Arabs. In 1978, the Camp David Accords were signed between Israeli Prime Minister, Menachem Begin, and Egyptian President, Anwar Sadat, in Maryland at Camp David along with US President Jimmy Carter as a witness. The Camp David Accords first began when President Sadat took a trip to Jerusalem to discuss the topic of peace between Egypt and Israel with Prime Minister Begin. This visit started talks between the two countries and had them developing peace negotiations. In the midst of creating peace, there was a period where nothing else was being done. Since there was a deadlock, President Carter invited both Sadat and Begin to Camp David to work out a permanent peace agreement. The Camp David Accords were signed in September, 1978. In March 1979, the peace treaty, better known as the Egyptian Israeli Pea ce Pact, was completely finished and was finally signed. The Egyptian Israeli Peace Pact was signed in 1979 in Washington. The treaty has nine articles. The treaty has a militaryShow MoreRelatedThe Committee By Sonallah Ibrahim1562 Words   |  7 Pagesa task to find an individual that aluminates. The protagonist decides to research about The Doctor, a prominent Arab figure, but the Committee comes to his house to notify him that he needs to change his topic. The main character’s decision not to change his topic makes him go through quite outlandish situations until he finally consumes himself. Ibrahim’s goal in writing The Committee was to take a critical look about the world around him, which consisted of money continuously going to the rich,Read MoreA Brief Recount of the Yom-Kippur War Essay1311 Words   |  6 Pagesterritories they had acquired during the Six Day War; which were known as the Galilee documents4. 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