Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question : A presentation covering the following points should be prepared: Provide a brief introduction to the organisation (it is acceptable to withhold the name of the organisation). 1. Describe the problem, as much as possible in terms of the observable or measurable symptoms it manifests, for example: employee unrest, frequent industrial action, high absenteeism, workplace bullying/harassment, low morale, loss of profit, sabotage etc. 2. The issue/problem should then be considered and analysed in terms of concepts/models/theories drawn from any two topics studied as part of this subject. To give some examples, your group may choose to adopt different negotiation tactics, change the existing recruitment and selection method, or re-design jobs, or arrange special training program and so on. Try to choose the topic that seems to offer the most useful insights into the problem. Topics must be taken from HRM course. 3. Design a change program or set of activities and procedures utilising some a spect or aspects of your analysis (actual action plan). The change program should beintended to solve or improve the situation. Answer : Introduction The British Airways (BA) is mainly comprised of British Airways Plc and other subsidiaries such as the British Airways Holidays Limited. At present, it is one of the leading airlines with a massive network across the globe. BA is catering to the needs of passengers and freight services in more than 72 countries through 149 destinations. The airlines carried up to 70 million passengers and almost 2000,000 tonnes of cargo. The UK based airline network recruits up to 85% of its employees from its own country. Details of the Cabin Crew Strike at British Airways An industrial dispute broke out in the spring of 2010 between the airlines and Unite. The latter is UK general union comprising more than two million members. Apart from the employers and employees, this dispute also involved political parties, media, government and the customers. Till today these strikes have been a concern for the company and is currently dealt by its management. An effective solution for the same has not been settled but the magnitude and occurrences of these strikes has reduced considerably. The review below shows an analysis of how the entire story started and how it has been going on till today. The British Airways has 13500 flight attendants out of which 12000 are Unite members. A whopping 81% of the cabin crew staff who were the members of Bassa, Unites cabin crew branch voted for industrial action. It occurred in February 2010 to oppose the proposed staffing cuts and change of working conditions. This entails a former ballot towards the end of 2009 that advocated 12 days of strike action. It was challenged by BA in the high court that granted the request for an injunction against this strike. It was based on a balloting error that violated the Trade Union Act of 1992 (The Guardian 2014). The mentioned ballot was basically a reply to the unilateral decision of the airline in reducing cabin crew by one person on long haul flights. It was to lower down costs based on a last year pre tax loss of 401 million. Unite replied to cabin crew with the claim that such ruling marks that extent to which law is used against the interests of the working population. It shows how a determined employer with limitless resources frustrates your actual right by withdrawing labour at the last moment in an effort to make sure your voice is heard. Despite large scale negotiations, no further progress touched the ballot in Feb 2010 for resolving such disputes (The guardian 2010). Analysing the key issues and fallout of the strike During March 2010, seven days of strike action occurred during two different occasions. The airline responded by taking a number of steps. Firstly, it withdrew the perks of discounted travel for air stewards that were a substantial benefit. Secondly, cabin crew from different airlines, used volunteer crew and chartered jet were borrowed. Some of BA pilots substituted for the striking cabin crew. After such actions, BA reported of the bill likely to be 45 due to the strike action. There also reports of carrying up to almost 400,000 less passengers compared to a year ago during same period which shows a decline of 15%. Another airline Ryanair reported a rise of 23%. BA hired planes and crew staff from rivals for operating 79% of long haul flight schedule and 58% of short haul trips during the seven days strike period (BBC 2011). The main cause of the dispute is related to the managements efforts in lowering the operating costs. It is due to fall in demand, rising competition and increasing non labour charges such as fuel prices. Labour costs form a major cost in the airline industry and is one of the key reasons for making profit. The cabin crew forms the biggest part of the workforce. For lowering the cabin crew costs by up to 140 m annually, BA management suggests on employing newer crew on minimal favourable terms and conditions. Theyll be on a separate fleet freed from costly and unaccommodating demarcation lying between cabin crew hired for short haul and long haul services. Reportedly, Unite grew insecure that new workers would be excluded from collective bargaining with existing employers. Thus, the workforce could be divided despite the permission to join the union. Theyve also suspected the new workforce of facilitating the integration of low paid workers, work intensification. There was also an insecurity that new fleet is a plan to occupy the best profitable routes for marginalizing existing workforce (Afed 2010). Even though these plans could be significant for workers, Unite wont participate in discussions on new fleet suggestions. This is due to fears of pre emptive strike likely to be inducted and serve a basis for legal action by the airline. BA also made further proposals for cutting down the operation costs. It includes doing away with seniority mechanism of promotion and reshuffle of cabin crew functionality. They also have plans to bring payment structure in line with their competitors who as per reports pay cabin crew less than BA (Eprints 2011). The claims and counter claims on the result of the strike action stood as a distinctive feature of the dispute. For example, BA had claims of support weakening for supposed industrial action. It was based on their observation that during the second of these two strikes, more of the cabin crew was busy working and more flights were also operating. Chief Executive of BA, Willie Walsh claimed that the airline had over 60,000 passengers across 470 flights on Saturday during the second strike. On previous Saturday, the numbers were 43,000 on 350 flights. Len McCluskey responded to such claims marking them a grand con trick of British Airways. He further said that BA is making these claims after spending millions of pounds bay dumping passengers on other carriers. Passengers expecting to go on their trustworthy BA airline will be transferred to carriers theyve probably never heard of. Theyll be serviced by a group of low graded pilots and managers pretending to be a crew. BA inflicts a trash on its brand in its desperation to divide the workforce, expressed McCluskey (Constant Contact 2011). The media has played a role here in structuring mass opinion. It has acted as an outlet where these claims and leaks of confidential information were pitched to solidify the position of respective parties. This strike also received the attention from the political quarters. It took place in a run to a general election in UK where Conservative Party chief David Cameroon attempted to gain political mileage. He expressed that PM Gordon Brown has displayed a weak point in his attitude to deal with a dispute. It is a failure to come in the aid of the non strikers and supporting the unions (WSWS 2010). Brown responded by calling the strike as deplorable and unjustifiable. He observed it not in the interest of the masses and urged to call off proposed strike action. As per some reports, the government was also afraid of the political consequences springing from this industrial action and their impact on election results. This was particularly with reference to the climate of rising unemployment .The vulnerability of job losses was clouding the public sector during the subsequent months. Due to these conditions, Brown had been reportedly desperate in his attempts to settle the dispute. An intriguing build up to the dispute was the claims of certain commentators. They said that the plans of the airlines management in terms of second fleet, responding to strike and approach to further negotiations lead to a planned effort to divide Unite by macho management. It was seeking to dissolve the strength of the union which has been a feature of fraught history of industrial relations in BA (Reuters 2010). BA was particularly accused of being forcefully intervening in their refusal to restore pre-strike peace offer. Unite said that it could have been forming the basis of a deal to finish the dispute but they provided a worse offer in order to regain the money lost in dispute by the new revised deal. According to BA, these claims are unacceptable. They are of the belief that Unite and their cabin crew branches had many opportunities to reach an agreement on cost reducing programme. Unnecessarily, theyve opted to pursue strike actions, said BA. Unite floated warnings that the clash was watering the seed of a lengthy internal conflict in British Airways. After the settlement of the recent dispute, Unite expressed that a sense of mistrust and ill feeling will penetrate within the management, their members and within the employees. Similarly, it will also take place between the strikers and the ones who decided to pass the picket lines. This will also not spare the pilots who were filling in as the cabin crew during the industrial strike (Daily Mail 2010). Change Program or a set of activities to fight the Cabin Crew dispute In order to deal with this problem, the management has deployed several policies and underwent through various changes as per mutual agreed standards between the management and the cabin crew members. In order to ensure that the company does not get into similar problems in future, some of the possible recommendations to be abided by would include: Involve Cabin Crew in the decision making process: Management of British Airways has many a times been criticized for their rigid stand against the policies and implementation of changes without the consent of their employees. In order to ensure that they do not face stiff opposition to any changes which they wish to implement within the organization, the airline would need to take the cabin crew on board. Giving importance to the cabin crew and getting them in confidence for the decisions the management proposes would be very important (Socialist Party 2010). Empathy: British Airways would need its management to consider the qualities which make great executives and have the characteristics of being aggressive, tenacious personality which can create resolutions to all the labour disputes. It would need to create an environment where the cabin crew members are given the confidence that the management cares for their causes and addresses them with prime importance. Empathy can serve as a great touch for preventing strikes and the trained mediators would serve the organization well. Conclusion After evaluating the case of British Airways and the cabin crew strikes which had been a concern for the airline for many years now, it is well understandable that labour relations are a critical element for profitability of an organization. If organizations do not pay heeds to worker interest and try to enforce their decisions, it is more than likely to impact their progress and business efficiency. Further, British Airways seems to have responded in a stronger manner and has better measures in place today. The rate of such unrest have been brought down to the minimum and the company is constantly working on ensuring that such situations do not arise again. References The Guardian 2014, British Airways Strike Action Threat Pay Claim, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/jun/22/british-airways-strike-action-threat-pay-claim-ba The guardian 2010, British Airways Cabin Crew Strike, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.theguardian.com/business/2010/mar/20/british-airways-cabin-crew-strike BBC 2011, British Airways cabin crew vote to strike again, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-12882499 Afed 2010, BA Cabin Crew Strike Again, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.afed.org.uk/res/resist123.pdf Eprints 2011, Creating a Sustainable Work Environment in British Airways: Implications of the 2010 Cabin Crew Dispute retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/6144/1/Upchurc-Creating_a_Sustainable_Work_Environment_in_British_AirwaysFINAL.pdf Constant Contact 2011, Working Together A Joint Settlement Between British Airways and Unite the Union, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://library.constantcontact.com/download/get/file/1103933565912-9/Final+Joint+Agreed+Settlement+Stoke+Place+110511.pdf WSWS 2010, High court outlaws strike at British Airways, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2010/05/brit-m19.html Reuters 2010, British Airways battles cabin crew strike, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.reuters.com/article/2010/03/20/us-ba-strike-idUSTRE62J01E20100320 Daily Mail 2010, BA suspends union militants for Facebook and email 'intimidation' of strike-breaking pilots, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1250377/BA-suspends-union-militants-strike-intimidation.html Socialist Party 2010, The truth behind the British Airways cabin crew strike, retrieved on 13th January 2015 from https://www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/9006/12-03-2010/the-truth-behind-the-british-airways-cabin-crew-strike
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Enzyme Catalase Paper Enzymes are proteins that function as biological catalysts (Perry, Morton 2007). They maintain the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s stable internal balance, and without them life would be impossible (Sullivan, 2013). Enzymes are capable of speeding up reactions that otherwise would happen at a slower rate. Even though we have hundreds of different enzymes in our cells, each enzyme is specific for one particular reaction that occurs in the cell (Fuentes, 2011). A catalyst is responsible for lowering the amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur. The activation energy is then lowered enough to the affect called a molehill. In an enzyme-catalyzed reaction the substrate, which is the substance being reacted upon, is the reactant (Perry, Morton 2007). The substrate only fits in a specific active site, and is later broken down by the enzyme (Lab Report). Enzyme molecules and substrate molecules merge together to form an enzyme-substrate complex, however this is only temporary. Once the molecules are bound the enzyme-substrate complex changes shape slightly. This allows the chemical reaction to process faster. The molecule is then released unchanged and is capable of catalyzing the same reaction over and over (Perry, Morton 2007). Catalase is a specific enzyme that is found in many animal and plant tissues (Sullivan, 2013). It is used to speed up reactions that break down hydrogen peroxide. For example, the enzyme is catalase and the substrate is hydrogen peroxide (Lab Report). We will write a custom essay sample on Enzyme Catalase specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Enzyme Catalase specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Enzyme Catalase specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Hydrogen peroxide is a byproduct of numerous cellular reactions that happen in our body, however this byproduct is very toxic to our cells. When catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide it is converted into two harmless substances, water and oxygen (Fuentes, 2011). The purpose of this study is to test certain factors, and how they affect the rate of the reaction that it catalyzes. The test factors include: substrate concentration, pH, and temperature.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
How to gain experience without experience 7 ways to land your dream job If you currently have the day job that pays the bills but isnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite building towards your career goals, or you want to switch career tracks, then you have to be smart about collecting the skills you need to bolster your resume. Beyond the day job, there are ways to demonstrate and build the skills that will look good to future employers and prove your worth in a new position. It may take a little bit of hustle and some extra unpaid labor, but it can pay off in the long run. 8 ways to gain skills to get the job you want1. Target the entry-level positionFirst, you need to research the skills you need. Figure out the places where you find yourself saying, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢d love to work there, if onlyÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢d love to do this, but first I need toÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Find out specifics. What are the skills emphasized in these job ads? What skills do you currently have that are transferrable? Then, work from there. Setting your sights on an entry-level job in your preferred industry while building the skills required for the dream job are a winning combo.2. Take classesMost importantly, you want to figure out ways you can build these skills beyond the traditional workplace setting. Building skills through small certificate programs or local or online classes are a good way to learn and demonstrate your abilities. Taking classes can also show your motivation to prospective employers.Online courses are a convenient way to build your skills or interests on your own time. Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a Google Analytics certificate, or a continuing studies course in graphic design at your local art school, you can find low-cost ways to build your skills in a new area.3. Take on self-motivated projectsDid you take that class in graphic design? Great. Now make a website of your sample work. Gather a portfolio. Take the knowledge you have and translate it into action. This extra step can lead to a showcase of your skills and work beyond a line on a resume, and it demonstrates to future employers your ability to take initiative.4. Build your online presenceBeyond a website, there are a number of social media platforms available to keep you informed on your industry of choice and help you interact with that industry. Ã¢â¬Å"LikingÃ¢â¬ an organization on social media and staying up-to-date is the first step. In addition to following any appropriate feeds, you can build your own presence surrounding that field, while developing your knowledge. For example, if you want to work in a museum, follow art news feeds and link to articles you find interesting. A lot more employers are looking at prospective employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ social media, so let that be a plus for you.Beyond these basics of staying on top of industry trends, you can build your own stories on YouTube, Snapchat, Instagram, Twitter, or your platform of choice. Investing the time to engage with your industry will keep you informed of opportunities available and the skills you need to get the position you want.5. Consider a side gigPart-time work or freelance work is a great way to get your foot in the door for a new position. It likely wonÃ¢â¬â¢t come with benefits, but it can help you develop skills and experience in a new area as a stepping stone toward a full-time position. These smaller side gigs can help bolster your resume with smaller projects related to your desired in dustry.6. Explore internship opportunitiesWhile an internship often requires a bigger (and often unpaid) commitment than a side gig, getting one at an organization can often lead to longer-term work. Helping with a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s odds and ends can also really show you an insiderÃ¢â¬â¢s view of the industry and what it is like working at a particular organization.7. VolunteerWhether itÃ¢â¬â¢s working on a political campaign, for a local environmental humanitarian organization, at a neighborhood food bank, or anywhere else that needs a helping hand, volunteering can demonstrate your passion and commitment to more than just your own personal goals. Employers also often value soft skills like collaboration, so you can let your volunteer work speak to that side of your merit.You can also gain job skills in whatever aspect of the work you do on a voluntary basis. If you want to work in marketing, for example, volunteering to assist on a marketing department campaign at a service or ganization can help you gain necessary skills and insight and help you land your next job.8. Find opportunities at workThe easiest way to go about gaining skills is to look at the place that already pays you to do work. Find projects within your current job that can support a career move and help you build new skills- whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s simply offering help on a project for a colleague or directly asking your superiors for opportunities. You can slowly gain experience that will expand your resume and still get paid to do it. Get an idea, take some initiative, and go for it.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Tragic Flaw in Sophocles' Oedipus the King - Essay Example That way the audience can experience a proper moral fear that badness always brings forth bad result. In the case of SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Oedipus the KingÃ¢â¬ , the character that passes out as Ã¢â¬Å"tragic flawÃ¢â¬ in the Oedipus is no doubt his pride and arrogance. In this paper we will be looking at the principle of Ã¢â¬Å"tragic flawÃ¢â¬ as postulated by Aristotle in the context of SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ play Ã¢â¬Å"Oedipus the KingÃ¢â¬ . The idea of tragic flaw that became synonymous to Greek tragedy was postulated by Aristotle, which might explain why this principle featured prominently in almost all his poetics. Tragic flaw basically describes a hero in a story making some fundamental mistakes that are mostly triggered by pride or hubris, which forms his main flaw in an otherwise perfect character, thereby marking his downfall. There is strong evidence to suggest that the development of the principle of tragic flaw was informed by the need to respond to the principle of tragedy which despite dominating Greek plays for so long was being challenged by the likes of Plato on moral grounds. In this regard, the principle of tragedy was attacked ostensibly for corrupting the audience by alluding to the futility of being virtuous. According to Plato, tragedy corrupts the audience by showing good and virtuous people perishing instead of emerging triumphant. It is, therefore, extremely disheartening to see them falling by the wayside primarily because of their virtues and goodness. It was in response to this challenge that Aristotle decided to add some flaw to an otherwise heroic character so as to explain his downfall on moral ground. By so doing Aristotle had offered a solution to the principle of tragedy as presented by Plato and other Greek writers and playwrights. In the play the Oedipus the King Oedipus commits a number of mistakes that can be blamed on his pride, which forms the tragic flaw in his character. One of such mistakes is his impatience with Creon after embarking in a journey to ApolloÃ¢â¬â¢s temple to plead with him to save the city of Thebes from the plague that has destroyed crops and livestock while rendering women sterile. After the arrival of Creon from ApolloÃ¢â¬â¢s temple we see Oedipus commanding Creon to tell him what Apollo has to say concerning the plague despite CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s protestation on spilling the information in front of his subjects. This offer from Creon to do it in private should have awaken Oedipus to the reality that whatever he was about to hear was not good to be spilt in the midst of his subjects. However, in total disregard of CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s advice he stood his ground and received the information in the presence of his subject, something that smirk of extreme pride. A careful analysis of the play will show a keen reader that this is a dangerous mistake that Oedipus has made because the answer that comes from Creon set the stage for his downfall. It is also important to note that ha d he agreed to receive the message from Apollo in private, things would not have gone out of hand as they eventually did. King Oedipus curiosity for truth is arguably the worst trait that contributes to his downfall in this play. If only he had decided to forget about where he came from and concentrated on resolving issues surrounding the plague, then
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Critical analysis - Essay Example The O- ring seal let gases emanating from the so rocket booster. These gases lay on the propellant tank which is outside and also the booster strut. This took place in January 28 1986. The remains of the shuttle fell into the Atlantic Ocean just off FloridaÃ¢â¬â¢s cost. The compartment where the crew was together with fragment of the space shuttle was only recovered after a long search of the ocean was conducted. When exactly the crew passed away is unknown but it is believed that a number survived when the space craft initially broke up. The only problem for those who survived was the fact that the shuttle lacked a means of escape .It is for this reason that they were captive in the space shuttle as it impacted with the ocean surface .This was too violent for any of them to survive. The shuttle space program was halted for 32 months due to the disaster. The Rogers commission was formed by the then president Ronald Regan. The commission laid blame on NASAÃ¢â¬â¢S decision making s ystem and and its organizational culture for the disaster. NASA was aware that the design of the Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SBRs) by Morton Thiokol had a lethal defect in the O-rings .This hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been addressed since 1977.They also failed to head to warnings from engineers concerning the launch in the prevailing low temperature that fateful morning. These technical concerns werenÃ¢â¬â¢t shared with the superiors. It is interesting to note the vehicle never received certification to run in the low temperatures of that morning The O- ring together with other key components hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been tested to ensure that they would operate in the launch conditions of that morning. The launch had many viewers since it had Christa McAuliffe .She was to be the first teacher, female, in space .So hyped was the launch that just an hour after the Disaster 85% of Americans had gotten wind of the news .It is worth noting that the challengers disaster was a reference point when it comes t o issues of engineering safety and ethics in the work place. The concerns about the O-Ring A look at the space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters Design (SRBS) will help us understand where the flaw lay. To begin with this unit makes part of the vehicle for space transportation system. It is made up of six sections connected in 3 factory and field joints. Factory joints had an insulation made up of asbestos-silica .This was applied at the joints to cover them. The field joints were assembled at the Kennedy space centre in the building used for vehicle Assembly .The field joints relied on two O-rings made of rubber .There was a primary one and a secondary one which acted as a backup. After the disaster, field joints adopted a 3 O-ring system. All the SRB joint seals were to contain high pressure gasses resultant from the combustion of the solid propellant that lay within. All the propellant is supposed to emanate from the nozzle at the end of the rocket. At the time of the shuttle design, a Mc Donnell Douglass report highlighted the record of solid rockets when it came to safety .It was safe to abort in most failure types. There was one though in which aborting would have been dangerous. Hot gasses would burn through the forced casing. If the burn through was to take place next the liquid hydrogen/oxygen tank, aborting a launch
Monday, November 18, 2019
Consumer Behavior - Essay Example This entire process is usually known as the decision-making procedure of the consumers. These particular activities Ã¢â¬â parts of the decision-making of the customers Ã¢â¬â are influenced by various factors that include cultural, social, group and personal aspects. The importance of decision-making of the customers is that it helps the consumers to identify their needs in order to fulfill their objectives (Williams, 2012). In this paper, the evaluation of the stages of the decision-making procedure that the customers go through in selecting whether to purchase the Crispy Baby Snacks product or not from the business market of Oman will be taken into concern. Moreover, the analysis of the most significant social and personal factors in relation to the purchase decision for this particular product will also be portrayed in the discussion. Critical Analysis Decision-Making Process The various stages of the decision-making procedure of the consumers include recognition of the need, gathering information about the product both internally and externally, assessing the alternatives, making purchase-related decisions, and, finally, creating post-purchase assessment (Haubl & Trifts, 2000). In relation to the initial stage of the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ decision-making procedure, it can be stated that the customers recognize their need to provide nutritional and delicious Crispy Snacks to their babies and thus start to collect information about the different snacks products which are available in the business market of Oman. This particular behavior of gathering information about the availability of the snacks products ultimately leads them to assess the other alternative products in the business market. After the evaluation of the alternative products, the consumers make the decision to purchase Crispy Baby Snacks product for their babies. In this context, it can be stated that the continuous use of the product, i.e. the Crispy Baby Snacks, ultimately leads to dissatisf action or satisfaction of the consumers about the product. This particular activity of the customers also leads to the rejection or repetitive purchase of the product by a considerable extent. The post-purchase evaluation decision stage of the consumers depends on the acceptance or the rejection of the products available in the business market of Oman. The customers are satisfied with a product only when their expectations are met. In this regard, in relation to the Crispy Baby Snacks, the various expectations of the customers include the quality, flavor, and, most importantly, the cost. While using the particular product, on the basis of the aforementioned aspects, the consumers comply with the decision-making stage of post-purchase evaluation (New Age International, n.d.). Influencing Factors Social There lie various significant factors that influence the purchase decision-making procedure of the customers. In this context, one set of the factors can be deemed as the social factor that includes the group or the social segment to which the customer belongs. The buying patterns of the customers are ultimately influenced on the basis of the aforesaid social aspects. It has been observed that the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ decision-making procedure, as regards the Crispy Baby S
Friday, November 15, 2019
Value of Reflective Practice for Skills Development Reflective practice has been defined as Involving self, a process that is undertaken in response to a positive or negative event that may be initiate consciously or subconsciously, that requires to provide an answer (Chapman, Dempsey et al. 2009). It has also been defined as Paying critical attention to the practical values and theories which inform every day actions, by examining practice reflectively and reflexively, this leads to developmental insight (Clouston, Westcott 2005). Reflective practice is a process to which a person dissects their internal reactions to certain situations, and how they dealt with the cause and effect. It is only through this reflection that an individual can comprehensively understand and learn from their previous decision making mechanisms. Reflective practice gives the opportunity for a health professional to look back at their clinical skills used in given situations, and assess how these skills could be amended to better their professional practice. It is a method of learning from experiences, using experiences to analyze why problems occurred, and then to find a solution to these problems (Taylor 2010). Reflection has been defined by Dewey (1933) as active persistent and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusion to which it tends cited by (Mann, Gordon et al. 2009). Boud (1978) reinforces Deweys assessment of reflection, however, he aligns himself with an overtly emotional assessment of personal experience. Boud defines reflection as a generic term for those intellectual and affective activities in which individuals engage to explore their experiences in order to lead to a new understanding and appreciation cited by (Mann, Gordon et al. 2009). There is a gap between academia and good professional practice. Although a student may have a very good understanding of theory, this does not necessarily teach them about good professional practice (Baird 2008). Knowledge is something that is to be challenged and reinforced. Gaining knowledge through clinical experience and reflection is key to being a reflective practitioner (Clouston, Westcott 2005). This can be obtained at university level within Radiography through clinical placement, positioning classes and a personal development system (PDS) (Baird 2008). These classes give the student an opportunity to challenge, discuss, but more importantly reflect on the theory which they have learned. It is through problem solving that a student can reach below the purely scientific understanding of processes and procedures, and can delve into the deeper, and one could argue, the more complexities of clinical practice. Through these teaching methods a student can learn that the theory of practice is not always going to work in given situations, and through reflection they can amend their knowledge to give the result of better clinical skills and professional practice (Baird 2008). It would be nieve to assume that every patient, every ailment, should reprieve a standard set method of treatment. The PDS is an online resource which provides a student with a key initial starting block to which they can build a more successful, productive, and ultimately professional methodology to explore key skill and developmental needs (Rowland 2006). A study of students found that reflective exercises proved successful, and that they thought it could be a valuable part of their professional careers within the health service. Students realised that reflective practice can help to deal with any similar issues arising (Cronin, Connolly 2007). Another study found that student nurses gained confidence in decision making through journal writing also stating that they believed more, that writing could be used to learn (Epp 2008). Both studies show that reflective practice is a beneficial tool that can be used to enhance professional practice. However the first study is seemingly over crediting the usefulness of reflective practice on a one size fits all basis. Students must not become fully dependant on the benefits which reflective practice may bring, and must leave room for ingenuity, and adapt these procedures to specific circumstances. The second study reinforces the benefits which reflective practice can bring to a students confide nce in their own professional expertise. The introduction of key performance indicators (KPI) into healthcare departments increased awareness among staff and gave an obligation to staff to fulfil certain tasks (Abujudeh, Kaewlai et al. 2010). Through KPIs in individual can highlight areas of strengths and weaknesses, however more importantly can develop a systematic and detailed plan to improve their continual personal development. There are methods incorporated into KPIS to encourage reflective practice, Continual Professional Development (CPD) and life long learning (LLL) (Chapman, Dempsey et al. 2009). Within radiography these two strategies are used to develop reflective practice. LLL was implemented with the intention for individuals to continually re-educate themselves on advances within their field of work. CPD is a resource which is discussed in detail with, the relevant line manager. If CPD is used properly reflective thinking is encouraged in the practitioner (Chapman, Dempsey et al. 2009). This reinforces the rel ationship which exists between CPD and the development of reflective practice. The society of radiographers has invested in an exclusive CPD tool which gives advice to members on how to reflect and learn. The CPD plan outlines that reflective practice can be carried out in a number of ways. Firstly by writing a reflective journal about personal experiences in the workplace or secondly in an educational environment through health professionals attending courses, to learn better ways of becoming a good reflective practitioner (Kelly 2005). It is only through implementation of all of these methods that a continual and productive mode of reflective practice can be achieved through the CPD plan. Writing a reflective journal helps a health professional keep a record of their practice, remind themselves of good and bad practice, why it happened and how they overcame or will overcome the problem (Clouston, Westcott 2005). A study found when a group of radiation therapists gathered to write journals together that their motivation, confidence, professional knowledge, critical thinking and professional practice all increased ensuring the CPD of staff (Milinkovic, Field et al. 2008). It is vital for reflective practice to be a success, all individuals within an organisation must be wholly committed to the belief that reflective practice is a worthwhile and productive tool. Things which hinder reflective practice occur in workplaces where there is no emphasis put on it by line management.. The pressures placed on professionals in the clinical environment mean that the health professional may feel that time spent on reflective practice may seem wasted (Mann, Gordon et al. 2009). It is a well known fact that as the health professional spends more time in the profession, it is found that less of their time is spent reflecting. It has been said that barriers to reflective practice include lack of time and space, negative preconceptions, organisational culture, fear, the risk of routine and not fully understanding reflection (Clouston, Westcott 2005). A study found that the use of a facilitator within a healthcare team to guide people and help promote reflective practi ce was very beneficial to the team. The time spent on reflection was said to have enhanced critical thinking, professionalism, making decisions and being able to challenge things they were not in full agreement with (Mann, Gordon et al. 2009). The use of a reflective practice facilitator provides a systematic and constant reminder to practitioners of the importance and benefits which this tool can give in work life. The facilitator provides an outlet for relevant and knowledgeable advice in what a practitioner may perceive as being a difficult circumstance. This study suggests that reflective practice has a positive impact on clinical skills and professional practice. Another study found that within the format of a meeting environment consisting of health professionals, reflective practice was influenced by five factors. The first factor which influenced reflective practice was that too much structure in a meeting lowered the ability to reflect. Secondly the level of interest a prof essional has in reflection, the more interested being better reflectors. Meetings in which people have certain roles and consist of tasks do not provide ideal for reflection. A pressurised environment where a professional is obliged to complete tasks, was shown to prevent reflective capabilities also (Heel, Sparrow et al. 2006). It would be nieve and absurd to remove structure from this mode of reflection, as the KPI targets reinforce good reflection methods. . Reflective practice has been proven to be an important tool in developing clinical skills and professional development. All studies had a similar agreement that reflective practice is good but the method of reflecting varied. Reflective practice has to be carried out from student to professional level. Reflection was said to increase confidence, decision making, motivation and professionalism (Clouston, Westcott 2005). There were no studies found that measured the effectiveness of reflective practice, perhaps this is an area where more research is needed. Another area that no research was located on was bad experiences of reflective practice. Further study into these areas could give more insight into how beneficial reflection is.